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The sentinel-journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1906-1909, April 18, 1907, Image 2

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/2012218672/1907-04-18/ed-1/seq-2/

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Fertilizing the Crop.
The primary object in using fertil
izer is to produce a larger yield of the
cro'i that is to be imnediately grown,
or is already growing, on the land to
which the fertilizer is to be applied.
As a rule, it contains from ten to six
teen per cent. of more or less prompt
ly available plant food. In other
words, a commercial fertilize' con
tains in every 100 pounds weight from
ten to sixteen pounds of available
phosphoric acid, either alone, or that
amount of phosphoric acid and pot
ash combined, or of tihese two an(
nitrogen conbined, mnaking in the lat
ter case what is called a "coinplete "
fertilizer. Now this ten to sixteen
pounds In each 100 pounds of the for
tilizer is supposed to be, and should
he, practically soluble and available
at once, or within a week or two, for
the use of the crop, says Virginia
Carolina Fertilizer Almanae.
The remaining portion of the for
tilizer, or eighty-four to iniety pounds
in each 100 pounds, Is a mixture
of insoluble phosphate and sulphate
of lime, some sand, water, organic
matter and other things that are
necessarily incident to the manufac
ture and cannot be economically re
moved. They are of very little imme
diatr value to either the crop or the
So when we apply a high grade fer
tilb::er to the soil the object. is to sup
ply the plants with soluble plntt food
and licrcase the yield of the cotton,
grain, gras or wi;tever the crop
may be.
Ilcidentally, h "m'.v, r, ihis fertil
izer doc5s help the hane1, b)ecause it. in
duces a Ini'ger growtlh of stalk, roots
and foliage of ti plauns---or those
parts that will be returned to and be
come part of the roil. A dose of this
fertilizer, for Instance, not only in
creases the size of the stalks, the fol
iage, hulls and (ither parts that go
inmediately back and forma a part of
the soil in the shape of humus (de
cayed vegetable matters). But the
principal way to imp,"ove the soil it
self Is to add ve:;etable matter to it
in the form of stnble minure, renova
ting cro)i;, rota o fei (,' cro,s, etc., in
a more dir;ect. ma'n-tr
It w o u ld ^~ ^n : :i i f ?: t, th e n , if w e
wish to inc:'eam", t le yield of corn,
cotton, w . : . r ,e tc., ta
the feritilhi' 8. all ".)m iia the' tl'
"elemcliiis" oi' I't !t fo),l in the pr'o
portion", ihait n1!(, is v d to the
particula, ecum.n i. h i ,artir nla rly
amlount. (f f.a riilv:c mr nere-. Ini
s'uch cas.' thi e iel-t stupiy, in1 the
natural soil, of epy V ne or mor0e' of
the threte ' "valuabile" it' eVCilens ( thor'
phlOr'ic a(ji, n'Iitgni and omTh)
neecd not lhe specially3'nn'rlo'redl.
According to c'ari'Cully condnetedIoc
field exper'imenlts, co1nnei'd at man.v
of the experimenxtstations, it has bieen
found that cot ton requires a f'ertilizer'
thlat containls abiout onei parltt each of
nitrogen and potash and1( 3 1-3 1)arts
oIf available phOsphoric aid(. Thisl
demand11( would he met by a fertilizer'
cont aining 1e (' er0) cent. available
p)hosphor~iie acidi, tree peCr cenllt. (If
niitrogenl and1 three"0 per centt. of pot -
ash1; or', us ordin arily expressed, a
1 0-.'-- fortilizer1. One ana lyzinug
9----2.70.-1.70; orI 8---2.40--2.40;
or 7-2.1 0--- . 10, ofte., wvould answer
julst as well, 11rovided these lower
grades be appllied in heavier qiluanti
So it has been rounti that corn, su
garcane, soirghum1), grass:es and1( other
crops belonging to thle grass family
resplondI hest to a fertilIizer that shall
contain teti pa1rts of p)hosphoric neid,
five par1tsl of nItrogen0t anid two parts
oIf p)otash----or' a 1 0-5--2 fertilizer'.
The followving formulas are in pre
cisely the samio priopiortions, only
they are' of lower grade, and( would
give prtical ly the sam reuniCit s ontly
when a coresponintgly la rger api
cation shll hIe made Pl 1)- acre-- viz.,
or 7---3. -..4*10. and So) on1. Of
cou rse, thIeMe low 'r gr2di-s ennf h)e rohl
at lower'Ia rics thian thIe 111ghl grades,
but, al a1 ruile, thle farmerc will iid It
mlore 'Ci enomical to l-ly th hig
fiavinlg of fre ilht, thePI I ( lae bing r:
cisely the s:i fe, per' t en, for' both h ih
and low grades.
Yn1)lue of a1 Cow.
In . .idetain g to1 p1lace an eat i
mato11 on the value (1 a cow the ex:act
almnount ('f milk and( buitter' fat pio
duced 110hould he de:.termnlhed.
Most 1)eopl1 when estinmating the
value of a cow w'ill be largely in
fluenced by the statemeon\s mlade by
the owvner' of t he lt1imbler of gallions
sof milk she will pro:luce. Th'lis in
formtatilon is usually13 very misier.ading,
as5 most8 pers.ons doi not take inlto conli
sidertItion the foa m inl milk, and1(
again, thle lparty wishin)g to) Sell a cow
will SOmletHimtc exaggerateiu to in im
measured, should not be given any
consideration, but to know the e-cact
amount of milk a cow gives it should
be weighed with an accurate scale;
foam adds nothing to the weight of
milk. When the milk from a cow
is weighed morning and evening,
then her daily production can be esti
mated, but it is better to know' the
weight of milk produced for a num
ber of consecutive milkings and to
take an average of these for deter
mining her daily production.
After determining the amount of
milk produced per day in pounds and
ounces, then one should know the
average butter fat contained therein.
This can be determined by taking a
sample from each mnilking, and form
about fivo consecutive nhilkings, put
ting these samples together and de
termining the per cent. of butter fat
in this composite sample. This will
be an average per cent. of fat for the
t!Ine during which the samples were
taken. From the average daily pro
duction of milk and the average per
cent. of fat the averag-e amount of fat
produced daily vnn be ascertained.
As six pounds of butter fat thus de
termined will make about seven
pounds of butter, the value of the
milk for butter-making purposes can
he determined. As butter fat is the
Foundation of cream, the value of the
milk put into cream can be estimated.
While this method does not give any
idea of the amount of milk and but
ter fat a cow will produce during her
milking period, it does show how
much she is producing in butter or
'reanm for the time being.
No dairyman should be without
this record of each one of his cows
At any time. It will enable him to
know when a cow is not producing
tn amount which justifies her keep,
lnd she can thctn be replaced with a
better cow. Where records are kept
a., has been suggested at the end of
the milking period the amount of
milk and the amount of butter fat
from each cow can be estimated and
her value for that period pretty close
ly determined.--WVm. I). Saunders,
Dairyman Virginia Agricultural E:.
periment Station, Blacksburg.
Hfow a 'I' Can Will Ielp.
Manyr difierent recerptarles Iay be
ised Iin which to glow planits so Vs
o have theml of good size befor iut
lnc them out in the field. Flow'
)ols, paler pots, tomato cans, split
'ood be--.s n pa:per bc.s are 1)er'
inlis the m1ost imp 1ortant . Of ths.,
~O1)er 1)ot, tin cans and split wood
~oe ar'e hest, though for' a few
~ilnts poneor bags of two-pounId size,
mlde of heavy ilazed paper', P.nawer'
secll. Cut themn to four' inches ill
bel.h t , fill with11 threeC in.c:hes' of ioilI
TIhe cylinders mad'e from old tin
aan.ls 'r fr'om1 tiln eccuIrd froml thle
U iithi, are excel lent. If mladle from
old tomato or corna cans, t.he c'ans
shoulld lhe placed in a fire and1( heatedl
just enoug '.h to cause the o]iS and
biottomls to driop ofiY. 'The seali cnn
he 111(lted alpart, too, hut it talkes a
lit tle too much '1 heat, (enou1gh to ser'i
o'lily inljtl' the (1ua'lity of the tin, so)
it is host 1o open theam by cultting~
thiemi from top to bottom. TVhen wrap]
a bit of wire aroun1d ther, to hold(
them iln place, or bendl( the edlges withl
a stove-pipie joint so they will catch
and1( 11o1( in the forml of a cylinder,I
1n0 bottom anid of course 1n0 tOpl. Set
these 0on a board in a framli or
kitchen, or somewhere where It is
warmi, fill with good soil and planit
seeds of tomatoes, egg-plant and pep
per1s, cucumbers, melons, cantaloupes
anld squashoes for tho ear'ly crop.
WVhen the planits ar'e well grown~ and(
tho wcather is right, transp)lanit by
scooping out a 11010 (10e1 enoughi to
receive thle enll, s&t the can ill place,
iunlock the joinIt or slip the wvire off
mind thlere standls the lplant. in its hal
af earth. Draw the earth u p about
it, and that lilanat will never knowv it
has chianiged itsi (uarlters.-- -J . Ii arold
tllumelt, Ill thle Pr'ogr'esi.vo i.'armr.
Whast t he Soulth1 Nee~ds.
Thel g ea.t n: ewd for thbe d 2v:'lop
uleni. of thle~ gri(cultura'~l rcu,lrers of
:eeml to thinkd, but it is the' inculea
ioll of righlt ideas alld co'rc rin~i1
ciples oIf agr'icuilture inIto theo miinds
and practices of the pled we cl
ready have, and nothinlg wvill (nfor(ce
them1 5o muclh als th10 senreit y of M ~hor'.
WVe cer'talinly don' t neOed labhor [o onI
able 11s to mtakde mioire cotton. Tfhe
fear~ thait wye will miakeO too much(1 cot
tonili' ha) b'*05m as a n1ihtmartlo to the1
cottonl fa,i(er alr'eady.
But we hIave not started to write
about imm1igrailoln. We wanlt to talk
about farming, aind weC meani farminag
land; and if we en hellp some 51 sitrull
giing farmer to got out of the 'l rt s
and1( got Oin thio smioothi track, the
'""'nn'e of this artiele will be accoum
Predicts Dlay When to Make Money
Will le Deemed Ignoble.
The London Review of Reviews
prints a striking article by Andrew
Carnegie entitled "My Partners, the
People." Mr. Carnegic expresses the
belief that a millionaire ought to
share his wealth with the poor, but
with t'"e limitation that his fortune
should not be divided before the mil
lionaire's death. Then the commt
lity should exact p large share, grad
gaated in inereasing proportion to the
c0:en"t of the dead lman's wealth.
After advocating the British gracd
uited cleath duties as a basis for dis
tribtIion, MIr. Carnegie says:
"Such contributions from the own
ers of enormous fortunes at thcir
d?ath would do much to reconcile
dis-atisiled but fair minded people to
the alarmingly unequal distribution
of wealtih arising fromn the new ind u
trial conlitions of our day. We shall
ultimately have to consider the adop
tion of some such scheme as a pro
gressive tax on all fortunes beyond a
cerin l amount, either given in life
or bcqucathIed at death, so that it
Will be impossible fc ' the owners of
enormo:ls fortunes to hand no more
than a cc,rtain amount to any individ
Mr. Carnegie humbly deprecates
the claim of the merely wealthy to
fame. They have no place with edu
cated mcn, and they occupy a lower
plane intellectually. In the coming
day brains will stand above dollars,
and conduct above both. The mak
ing of money as an aim will then bo
rated as an ignoble ambition.
Think not that thy word and thine
alone must be right.--Socrates.
Many a good man's purse is like a
siphon, the very emptying of which
Insures its refilling. - Arthur Ed
Our grand business is not to see
what lies dimly in the distance, but
to do what lies clearly at hand.
Courage is a sort of armor to the
nmind, and keeps an unwelcome im
pression from driving too deep into
It is only an error in judgment to
make a mistake, but it shows infirm
ity of character to adhere to it when
To be truly happy Is a question of
how we begin, and not of how we
end; of what we want, and not of
what we have.--Stevenson.
Let a man learn that evertihling in
naL1r1, even motes and f('aters,
goes by law and not by luck. ;rd
I hat w: hat he sows he reaps.--E1mer
son. .
.foy is a working thing. It builds
ip whbile it (1nlarges the whole na
ture. 11. is the wine to strengthen the
heart, to brace it to carry noble en
Shall a mnechlanical experimen,t
succeed infali ibly, andl the 0ne vital
expermimin at of lhuimaity re main a
chance? Is corn to grow by mnethodi
andl efaracter' by caprice?-Ienr'y
T(oo many strictures as to childish
conduct are like elastic garters seen
too oftn mOin stoiut li tt.le legs. They"
impede the moral ciirculation, and
sh ould( be fot' thle'most part laid aside.
Eiiza beth Crilnnell.
If your [a ithI in God is strlonger for'
every' humble task in which you netd
and get is aid, then that hunmle
tak Is necessary to the fulIness of
your faiih In God. It will make the
music oft your life mote firm and
solid.-Phtillip1s Prooks.
'We often do more good b)y 0our
symphiathly than by our labors, and
rendoer to tho world a more lasting
service by absence of jealousy and
recognition of merit than we could
ever' rendler by the 'straining effor'ts
of per'isonah aimbitlin.---Archmd(aconi
God's. thoughts are not as our
thoughts. De)ar' as our huappinhess Is
to IHum, there is somnethilng wvithin tis
whIi chI is mnore pircious In HIls sight.
It is of fai' less4 ('onsequence, in any~
divine estimate of things, how miuch
a man suffers than what the mani is.
--Austin Phelps.
A T[ale of British Adul'eration.
Edwvard C'oinnor, wrilting foi' lie
Practical Con feeIloner' a mi HIaker o
used in (candly muainufne:tire in (Gr1t
rI tltain red(s arte t he most pop)11 i.
yell ows aric seconid ii fa '.ru, andu
browns, blues andI gricus of' les
esteem, .lie slates t ha. ini Franice
t he reds al lo wed by law forn this 1)1ur
pIose ar icoc0(hii nl, maiddori anid
Br'azi.l w'.ood; of yel lows, tumeric,
fustice, F'renchi beirries, Persian hemr
ries and1( saffrion. ir. Conno~r stte
wirite - auidles are do0ctored'~ wit h sul
ph ate of Ii me, dour I, terrna albha, plr
ter' of Par'is aniid 'Utheinial saltIs. Prus
sie a cid(, (conltainledi In the (!ssecet(~ of
hitter almtondsk, Is ahmo said to hE)
larngoly ini use1. 'T'e fact tht a lead.
lng trade jout inc of thme Em pire gives'
r'oomn to tile article ini qulest ion Is
warrant for the suipposi tioni thatd it
holds some tiuthI. Possibly there is
any disturbatco they were creating
throuii#:,out the cntire house.
A short. call without-the lirevailing
ei";fous de:ire to "see the sick one"
is sufiiicelt and will be more truly
appreciatel by the household and
Prove an un:1mixed blessing to the pa
tient. And if sonme little delicacy be
taiken to ie" it should not be asso
clated with the medicine bottles, but
lkeplt. out of the room or at least out
of the sighr of the sick person. 'These
:;hover: of kindness with good will
111: '"it so oftenl r'Silt in h rm to the
suYf:ria n one thia" too much thought
ad care (an not b) given to sUch vis
its. An(1 yet !he:s;' evidilens of
thoughtl: - :sare of everyday o(
en ilcIVe . - Evaliic, in NationaX
StockmI ai.
As thero is a right and a wrong
way of doing everyching, the holding
and lifting of a baby is no exception;
therefore the young mllo,her must
learn the knac;k as w. eil as the father,
who is uslaiiy iy)ore or les.; awkiward
for a greater ieI gtih of time. Fortu
nately for the baby, he sleeps the
greater part of thve first few ml!onths,
so that Vlhile, to most people, he feels
like a good sizcd jelly fish, ready to
slip fron the mnds witionli a mo
ment's wrin'i: itg, there is little neces
sity for lifting or carrying him about,
and the eldi"rs learn tlir task grad
1e;in at the earliest possible mo
ment t') lean the right way; that is,
when holding the child iin the right
hand form a suiport for the back of
the head and neck with the left hand.
In carrying, a baby hold it on the loft
arm, forming a cradle. Somthe moth
crs Carry the baby on the right arm
and others -.' it is a good plan
to aceustc to hold the baby
on the Ir as to have the
right free n whatever may
be necessi
In lifti from the crib,
gather hi to,eihcm- at the
botto.ni v :ight hand, and
while dra Iowrn gently slip
the left ha iN back until tho
fingers su head while the
a' u is a is back. Never
c;asi an !id the body to
ceitlily Ii'::ht ulnder the arn s will
i)rove hiirtiful; when the or four
y(:i. r01ol he mcay be raisml i Qis way
wv a i no ill e fgetsi. pomi :ider, how
'Vrr, never(i to lift a (1hlid by thie wrist
or hianad, as it Imt(Iy caiu:-:eC (iilocation.
W\OMANx L.\N13 ON pflOFEggSO .
The A m'ricjan iiw(oman ias an intel
lec u al an'd womanly crecaturte was
vig,or'ously defeinded by ILydia Kings
inill Comma ndi(er against the attacks
of P.oftessor' W. L. Tlhomasi., of the So
(iolog' D)1:art ment 0o' the University
Oi' Ch icago, whot plaie:; wontan Onl the
intellectual plane of th.e s:avage, and
wvhen slihe at temntts to rai: hersel f
above thitat Plane i aSI thinae effort un
his burning ihougtht on t he 5iihjecct
I through the pngn;s 0f hiIs new'ohook,
"S Cx an Socijety." ' i:'s. 0 C iut(der
is; a worimr of (lie Self-Smippborting
\tomten 's; frague ami: an ath ior.
Mr is. Conmiunandter re'plIes:
"Prioftstor PToiias is in an educa
tional inast.itution where the women
are walking ini and taking the pirizes
away fi'om the men, and now whient
(lie wvomen have won fairly he r'aises
the cry that It ii not womianly. It
wvas ma:n , anti Riot nature, who set the
standards of so-called womanliness,
Ii !? iaur diC(Id not) hIi ieve thiat thle in
tellectuial wonman wa- i'wunotily sho
wVould n( ot makP. e I intell (ectiial womn.
"Of' Ihe thirty-five b,uilldii. coin
posiig thie lii''sily of' Chicago
gr'oupl (tn were built bty wonwn''. if
lhe meaciisire ine-IatellectuiiaI ac: anlIsh
mients by b)usinests abilify b t i.e say.
thait Mrs. I Ietty Green couild hiy t ho
Uivyersit" 'f C,'(hiean.o---and its pro
fessors- - es over. iiIn enl
Stucky All rnin aIs pre:nideint
of sYeven corporai ions andI
miadol $ I ist yeari. In 'T'X;s
a Alris. P mIllion-ne':' ranch.
"The - I o1' Ci igo, wherCio
thiis pr -h les, is b,y gen eral
Consen:s dams - -b. ' Ir ihan
aniy 1)r' New' Yor5k awm
ani conti minbg in hid(s for
ie w'irguin thiecre is ai
wvoman railri'gad buIld er. In N ebiuas
ha a woman has beaten the giain
trust. Ida0 ''Trbiell was thle fIrst to
inakhe the Standar id Oil Comapaniiy his
I eni to pubillic optinioin. No miai id
that.''--New Yor li;F oniin; World(.
Li idience.
"Te evbilec sh ow.s, rs. Muil
cahey, Ithat you thiew a sI one at ite
const able."
"'It shows more thanit that, yer
honor'. It shows that 01 lilt him.'
JuT (1Lan
Spa';ing ot c'lot s .';ests con
men'lt on thep;i:vaili lr)t. 'Though
th1(I ay t .11:a iy('.1t) ( . 1'i s
a lih ed in fa or, but are, in fact,
still eX perim:'n,it;1. The,l jlronoun(ItCed(
fav(i es dij1i n 1h S:'asoi Iave been
V 'a n ig h t he ei al-:'cd into a gener0al
termi thle berg y shades. They run
from (rep Iil:)cirry in c l')th' and v'l
vets to pale asilberry and even iight
si rawb:'rry reds in evening crepes an(
silks.-H-arpeir's B aar.
The "juiiper," by which popular
lame the prity little garlmlent has
become known Which practically
creates an indoor waste fo; street
Sit Its, is being transforned, and the
short kimon1o slceve, as well as the
slashed flowing slee:ve, is being re
sorted to to give i the note of novelty
to these Increasingly useful lit tle gar
mlen ts.
A marked feature of the winter
and new spring design.; already pri
vately shown is the trimmings of
faney braids. They are soft meshed
silky braids, from one to two incies
wide, and are usl ahuadantly on all
dress fabrics. They are put on in
either flat or shaped bands.--Har
per's Bazar.
"Can Womern Be Friends?" asks
GcogIe eIl'y In hlarper's Bazar.
"Sacrifices for the sake of love of
1;:at and offspring are recorded with
out number, but female Davids and
.)aimons are not readily discovered in
either history or legeid. Professors
of platonic aficetion continue to
evoke jeers of Incredulity, and the
traditional disingenuousness of 'dear
est friends' still plays well its part in
caricature. The changeableness of
woman's nature hab become axioni
atic. Can it be that, throughout the
ages, even to these enlightened days,
it has retained consistency In this re
spect alone? It suffices for us to
raise the question; to others of more
certain mind we relinluish the haz
ardous privilege of adducing evidence
nd passinig judgment.'"
Autotuobijisis are not yet so com
Illon in JiaS as they will b.., liut th
sVmrti;ng spirit is high, atnd they v:ill
get there in time. An enter'pri'sing
automoebilisL, who is not a ii'aid to let
her Outt occesional ly, is thte best man
to meet t heo a ir at ins of a .J . a iane5
mit(i n, who has imitated thte wite
irls' 1:rat'iCe andl advertis3d for a
huisbantd. As tr'antslated by a corre
sp)ondtent of the' Dunrdee Advertiser,
her atppealI r'eads:
"I am a ver'y pretty girl. My haitr
Is as wavy as a (cloud(. My comp Ilex
ioti has tite brillihancy and soft ness of
a o we'. Ily3 O Pxpression is as mtobileC
as thle leaf of the weepinig willow.
My browni eye.; are lI ke two crece:nts
of thle tmoon. I have enough worldly
gooals to l',as happsily thlrouigh life
with my huttsndh, hand itn band. gatz
ing at the flow'etr by (lay and( thte
mi(oon by night. If' t his shotld melt
the eye of a mian who is intiellia:ent,
auiable11( and of goodi a(dress, I will
be h is for Ii Ie, and trepose w itht him
later' in a totmb of red marble.''
'Thiink of how a gIrl of these at
Itra: tions and( en ter'prise would "rac'e
a fast gliding auttonmobile. All thle
hivelong day she would lie eneourag
ing her cscor't to drive faster and go
harttheor a ie ldI tInde1r thte cheer'fitl sun..
shine, takilng a hearty share of the
joys thlat nevet' weary. Imfaginte ber'
at the steitng wvheel wIth het' cloud
(of wvavy hait' 5irenin lg behtin d and
her mobile expressioni of face r ..-I)
the enitvy of' all be'h olders.-S-elIahI, ill
Auttom1obil" Aiagaz,ine.
One afternoonI, not man d 1'(ays a5go,
I we uiihered 1ito a ei''k toost oat.
1as crowdhed v. ith frind. aruli iiitith
hsoz.. iThe 1atien wasr~ve- lyinig tned' a
H:aono .inut enouri.'h 1ight to ensablo, mei
lor'o tinit t he strain0 of;thait ad of
v n ots was faIt weartin g ott th'i fee
ble streniglth
Ott a niear-byv tible, alonig with a
nlumbler' of m5edluiin hot tles, were^ to
lbe seeni almnost I veriy kind and va
i'iety3 of fond whlihel these kind frieinds
had 1brotught to tenp t her'I ia -e(
appe)1 tte. lI"('n to a~ person it good1
halth1 the sighlt of so mtucht was r'e
Julsivye, anld to the sick It was aniy
tlla g oust tempst itng. Thi oe personsa
htad5 eomae ont a visit , am1( were sptend -
In g tnie d ay3 ri ht in Ihe sick chamitberp
with no~ thouight~ of the dhst.'eits and
arm'si Iy were cautsing thte patttint.
'Ihe w omean in chartge of the house
hiold dut ios was overtaxed wIthI the
o<tr'a wotrk be'ing crtowded upion her'
by thesne sympathetic frienids, btut no
thought was gtven hbr' itmo.. ot. of

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