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The Pickens sentinel-journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1909-1911, May 20, 1909, Image 1

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Entered April 23, 1903 at Pickens, S. C. an second class matter, under act of Congress of March 3, 1579
39th Year PICKENS. S. C., MAY 20, 1909. Number 7
CllllllffIed System is S
Completion of the New Road I
tanburg and Columbia Wil
opment of SOt
Some of the Majestic Scenery, Marvelou
bilities of the New Transmontane Lii
tic Sel
"I am confident that through
trains for both passenger and
freight traffic will be in opera
tion by direct route over the
new Carolina, Clinchfied &
Ohio line from Cinciinatt, Chi
cago and the Middle West to
the South Atlantic states, Flori
da and the Panama canal by
way of the Flagkr road within
the next few years. When
this is done and the national re
sources of the new section have
been developed, particularly the
coal interests.-the Panama ca
nal having been completed and
the South's industrial develop
ment having reached that stage
of growth that many predict for
it- then there will be an era of
Southern activity the like of
which this country has little
dreamed. There is need for
Southern people to think on
these thin id above all else
to . eready for the time that
Oto come.'
This statement was made by
one of the best posted and most
intelligent observers of men and
events in the South a few days
ago just after having investiga
ted the possibilities and oppotuni
ties opened up by the new line.
And those who have gone over
the new road, which for scenic
grandeur and engineering skill
is not to be surpassed in Amer
ica, will verily agree, says W.
D. Adams in the Charlotte Ob
server. His article in full is as
The Carolina, Clinchfiel &
Ohio road is now practically
complete from Dante, Va., to
Bostic, this state, where connec
tion is had with the Seaboard
Air Line. Through trains are
now being operated daily from
the present northern terminus
to Wilmington and Southport,
and thus has been achieved the
dream of many Southern states
men and engineers in that the
rich coal district of Southern
West Virginia, .Southwestern
Virginia and eastern Kentucky
and the fertile fields of the Ohio
valley have been brought in di
rect contact with the South At
lantic states and the ocean.
The new road presents so
many interesting features that
the whole story can hardly be
comprehended in one brief arti
cle. It is a difficult matter to
determine just what particular
feature merits first place. To
lovers of the beautiful and grand
in scenery, it will appeal more
so than any other road on this
side of the Rockies. A new and
heretofore untraversed territory
has been opened up, one that
eclipses by long odds anything
in the neighborhood of Asheville
Saluda, Round Knob or Waynes
ville and far in advance of any
thing on the Chesapeake & Ohio
along the Kanawha in West
Virginia. Words are inadequ
ate to describe the iruposing
majesty of the towvering peaks
.of the Black mountains, which
are so overwhelmingly visible
for a distance of more than 15
miles as this new line half-way
encircles the Catawba valley.
Mount MIitchell, the highest peak
east of the Rockies, stands out
in all its majestic dignity and so
also a score of other lofty peaks
which constitute the Black
mountain range. Of broad and
fertile valleys, of foaming, tum
bling streams and of skyward
reaching mountains there are
hundreds, one following the
other in rapid succession from
Marion to Johnson City, Tenn.,
BOld to Panama Canal.
TomR Elkhorn, Ky., to Spartan
Mark an Epoch in Devel
Atlantic States.
Engineering Skill and Wonderful Possi
e Connecting Middle West with Atlan
and then from Johnson City to
Dante, Va.
Surpassing in grandeur even the
scenery, God's handiwork, if
such a thing be be the road itself
I regarded from the engineering
point of view. On the line be
tween Dante and Spartanburg,
S. C., are 35 tunnels, the aggre
ate length of which is six miles,
aid in a distance of 14 miles
of the 20 South of.:Alta Pass, in
which space the road drops 1,330
feet, with a compensated grade
of 1.2 per cent.,there are 18 tun
nels of varying length up to
2,150 feet. The alignment of
the road winds in and out
among the mountains, crossing
great ravines here and piercing
mountain spurs there, never de
viating from a specified course
and constructed absolutely re
gardless of cost. For instance,
just South of the great Blue
Ridge tunnel at Atla Pass, the
highest point of the line, 2,629
feet, the road as built covers a
distance of seven miles and re
turns again to a point less than
quarter of a mile from the start
ing point.. At another place on
this bend the direct distance be
tween two points is but 182 feet,
whereas the distance by rail is
more than two miles.
The road is intended primarily
for coal carrying purposes and
although it penetrates districts
heretofore considered inaccessi
ble the maximum grade has been
maintained at one half of one
per cent, compensated against
southbound traffic. In order to
maitain this grade many ex
cave tions and an equal number
of fills were necessary. One
cut, that near Johnsen City, is
3,800 feet long with a maximum
depth of 85 feet; from which
500,000 cubic yards of material
was removed. A number of fills
more than 100 feet in height
were also necessary.
In this connection, as illus
trating the ingenuity of the
locating engineers, the story is
told of a smart promoter who
acquired large holdings of real
estate in Moccasin Gap, a nat
ural pass to the North of Clinch
mountain, the barrier to the
Clinchfield district, through
which it was believed the new
road would have to go. By this
route the road would paral
lel the Virginia & Southwestern
for some distance. From care
ful investigation it was decided
to take a short route through
the mountain, much to the
detriment of the schem
ing promoter, who was
lying in wait for the railroad
company expecting the nest-egg
of a fortune by sale of right of
way on the basis of the lot
prices. By means of a tunnel,
which' while it cost something
like a million dollars, saved
several miles, the company side
stepped him and escaped,. The
guiding principle of those in
charge of the new road has been
to reduce grades and cut dis
tances and by sparing neither
time nor money, construct a
system the future maintenance
expense of which would be very
Those who have interest nei
ther in the scenery nor the en
gineering skill displayed, should
be concerned in the great propo
sition of what the construction
of the new road means to the
South. Within the past two
decades there has been a great
evolution wrought. This sec
tion is now a manifacturing re
gion, one of manifold industrial
activities and interests, so much
so that the demand for fuel sup
plies and the question of trans
porting it direct from the near
est district where high grade
coal is available has been a
matter of vital concern. It has
been known for a long time
that the most extensive and
valuable deposit of coal of ex
cellent quality for general man
ufacturing purposes lie in a dis
trict comprising some 15,000
square miles in Southwestern
Virginia, Southern West Vir
gini and eastern Kentucky.
Heretofore these deposits have
haraly been more than touched
and the product evolved has al
ways conmianded a higher
price than should obtain by rea
son of the long and circuitous
haul. The recent rapid de
velopment of the South industri
ally, the completion of the Pan
ama canal, and other agencies,
has increased the demand for
coal to a marked degree. The
bringing of the South in closer
contact with the Middle West
by reason of this direct line will
add to the general development,
for it will undoubtedly in time
reduce the price of coal and
doubtless result in the readjust
ment of general discriminating
freight rates by reason of the
new gateway points created.
These gateway centres have
heretofore been in Virginia, the
Carolina rates being reckoned
therefrom. It will direct atten
to the South, open new and
heretofore undeveloped territory
and otherwise promote develop
ment along lines of varied indus
tries. Second only to the Pan
ama canal, this new transmon
tane highway offers wonderful
opportunities for Southern up
The history of the construction
of this road, too, reads like a ro
mance. It was not the product
of one man's brain, nor the re
sult of activity of any one fac
tion or set of men, but the out
come of the thought and efforts
of many individuals covering a
period of almost three-quarters of
a century. The idea was enter
tained even as far back as the
60's, Senator Robert Y. Hayne,
of South Carolina, taking an ac
tive part in the movement look
ing to the building of such a
road and was president of a com
pany formed for the purpose.
A glance at any map, particular
ly one that shows the railroads
and coal fields, will make plain
the need of such a thoroughfare
of traffic particularly by the
South Atlantic states. All the
roads heretofore have run either
parallel to or partially encircling
the great Appalachian range,
the utilization even of the pass
es being roundabout and on
heavy grades. The mountains
interposed so many impediments
and barrels that any proposition
that contemplated an actual di
rect attack has been approached
with hesitation. However, at
last the great problem has been
solved, and the South is the gain
er thereby, a fact, certain in ex
tent, for timie only to tell.
TH E oLI 3 c's.
As previously stated, the Car
olina, Clinchfield & Ohio road,
formerly the South and Western
was designed primarily for a
coal-carrying road. It was or
ganized andl constructed by cap
italists interested in the manm
moth Clinchfield Coal corpora
tion, a company owning some
400,000 acres of rich coal lands
in the famous Clinch-district of
Virginia, West Virginia, and
Kentucky. When these gentle
men, Messrs. George L. Carter,
Thomas Fortner Ryan, W. A.
Blair and others, acquired such
large and valuable holdings, the
first problem that presented itself
was that of transportation, the
getting of this coal to market.
The proposition of building such
a road through the mountains
from the coal region to Johnson
Citv Tenn.. and not through
the mountains of western North
Carolina to the Atlantic sea
board was no new one. The old
Charleston, Cincinnati, & Chi
cago road, better known as the
3 C's, had been organized as far
back as 1888, and much con
struction work had been done up
to the time the company failed
during the panic of '93. This
road was located along the
Clinch river, in Virginia, from
Fink to Clinchport, Tenn.,
and thence to Gate City on
the Virginia & Southwestern,
through Moccasin Gap and
on to Johnson City. This
line was largely graded
and along the route from Hunt
dale to Johnson City, a distance
of 33 miles, track was actually
laid. In 1902-'03 other parties
continued the work to Spruce
Pine, N. C. In another directi
on the work was conipleted, the
company owning 193 miles of
road running from Marion to
Kingville S. C., which was later
acquired by the Southern.
North of Marion, in the heavy
mountain district, track laying
had not begun whei the panic
of ,93 came on aud all work
And now enters Mr. George
L. Carter upoi the scene, to
whose efforts more largely than
to those of any other man is due
the completion of the line. A
large owner of coal lands, Mr.
Carter appreciated the situation,
realized the opportunity, and
forthwith acquired the fran
chises, rights of way, abandon
ed works, etc., of the old 3-C's
for the purpose of constructing
just such a line as has been
built. To tell of his labors
would fill many volumes. He
first interested Northern capital,
additional coal lands were ac
quired and the nucleus of the
holdings of the famous Clinch
field Coal corporation secured.
The building of the road was
then undertaken. Mr. Carter,
keen business man that he was,
looked into the future and re
solved to construct a mountain
road the like of which had nev
er before been built in this coun
try. He determined to spare no
cost to build so that the future
maintenance charges would be
reduced to a minimum. Hence
the road is on a one-half of one
per cent compensated grade,
with long cuts, deep fills,
numerous tunnels and only the
very best equipment of rolling
stock, roadbed and track. The
line is now finished from Dante,
Va., to Bostic, this State, a dis
tance of 207 miles, with freight
and passenger trains in daily
operation, and the work is now
being prosecuted from Dante to
Elkhorn, Ky., and from Bostic
to Spartanburg, S. C., much
work of general character hav
ing been done on both exten
sions. A little track has been
laid in the direction of Spartan
burg. This line is tentatively
promised by October, and the
Elkhorn extension by the fall of
next year. The distance from
Bostic, where connection is
made with the Seaboard, to Ma
rion, where the Asheville divi
of the Southern is crossed, is ap
proximately 28 miles; from Mar
ion to Johnson City 28 miles,
and from Johnson City to Dante
81 miles. The extension to Elk
horn, Ky., will be about 45 miles
and that from Bostic to Spatan
burg 34 miles.
The track all along the way has
been ballasted with crushed
stone and slag from furnaces
and the rails are of 85-pound
class, American Society section,
in 33 feet lengths. The width
of the roadbed on banks is 18
feet; in rock cuts 20 feet and in
earth cuts 22 feet, including
ditches. In many places where
extra material was needed for
filling, the adjacent cuts were
excavated to a still greater width
in preference to taking the ma
terial from borrow pits nearby.
This plan has not only provided
more generous room for the
roadbed and ditches, but will
greatly reduce the expense of
building second tracks or sidings.
All passing sidings have been
built 4,000 feet long between
-clearance points.
Some idea of the heavy con
structing may-be had when it is
stated that a total of 16,000,000
cubic yards of excavation was
made between Dante and Bostic
a distance of 207 miles, of which
about 40 per cent was through
solid rock, 20 per cent was
through loose rock and the re
mainder earth. From Bostic to
Spartanburg the excavation
will amount to about 2,000,000
cubic yards of -rock and earth
and from Dante to Elkhorn
about 2,700,000 cubic yards,
mostly through rock. The av
erage cost per mile of the line
when finished from Elkhorn to
Spartanburg, a distance of 286
miles, will be $125,000, while on
the mountain grades on the
south side of the Blue Ridge and
along the cliffs of the Clinch
river, the cost in many places
ranged around $200,000 per mile.
The cost for the road itself, ex
clusive of the equipment, will be
something like $36,000,000.
Last week a party of Seaboard
officials, consisting of Mr. C.B.
Ryan of Portsmouth, Va., gen
eral passenger agent; Col. W. C.
Coleman of Washington, gen
eral traveling passenger agent;
Col. C. H. Gattis, Jr.,of Raleigh,
district passenger agent, Mr.
James Kerr, Jr., of Charlolte,
city ticket agent, accompanied
by Col. F. A. Olds of Raleigh
and an Observer representative
made a trip over the new line
from one terminus to the other
in Mr. Ryan's private car. At
Bostic the party was joined by
Mr. Charles T. Mandel of
Johnson City, traveling passen
ger agent of the Carolina,
Clinchfield & Ohio, and at John
son City by Mr. J. J. Campian,
traffic manager, one or both of
whom were with the car as long
as it remained in the Clinchfield
territory. Among the other
Clinchfield officials seen were
Mr. M. J. Caples second vice
pre~xent and general mana
ger, Mr. Mark W. Potter of
New York, chairmanof the
board of directors, who was also
on a trip of inspection.
Leaving Charlotte Tuesday
morning, according to regular
schedule at 10:35 o'clock, Bostic
was reached without delay on
train No. 45, which runs direct
through from Wilmington to
Johnson City. Many improve
ments have been make in the
roadbed of the Seaboard from
Charlotte to Lincolnton. New
and heavier rails have been laid
and the track splendidly ballas
ted. Work is now being pushed
in order that the ballesting may
be continued on to Bostic, '73
miles, distant from Charlotte.
The first view of the new road
at Bostic is one to astound1 the
ordinary observer. In addi
tion to the heavy and splendidly
constructed central track, there
are a dozen parellel ones out in
between the hills, far away from
human habitation save the
dwellings of the railroad people
themselves hard by.' A coal
chute stands on one side and
along the tracts are four or fivel
monster Clinchfield engines,
shifting Clinchfield coal cars
here and there. This is to be a
terminus where transfer is made
to the Seaboard line when the
coal begins to move in great
The road from Bostic north to
Marion, while relatively heavy,
is as 'nothing compared to what
the line from Marion to Alta Pass
discloses. For quite a distance
along the way the new road is
paralleled by the extension of
the Southern from Rutherford
ton to Marion, which serves for
no other purpose than to display
the difference between the con
struction methods of a quarter
of a century ago and those toi
day The main line of the
Southern stretching from Salis
bury to Asheville is crossed
about two miles east of Marion,
the town itself not being includ
ed for the reason alleged that no
rights of way was procurable.
The scenic part of the route is
from Marion to Johnson City.
A few miles north of Marion is
the big bridge over the Cataw
ba. 105 feet in height and over
960 feet long and containing
more than 900 tons of steel.
The veiw fron this point up and
down the valley is one to be re
After leaving the riyer proper
the valley is followed for quite a
distance. the character of the
country getting more and more
rugged and the cuts and fills
more and more precipitous. As
the head of the valley is skirted,
the view to the left of the
Blacks, sentineled by Mount
Mitchell and the other lofty
peaks, is as grand and beautiful
as is to be found on the conti
nent. Linville station, one of
the many undeveloped town
sites along the way, offers a
splendid view of the entire
range. And just six miles dis
tant is Linvile river, one of the
finest trout fishing streams in
western North Carolina. The
other streams in this general
section are well stocked. Lin
ville Falls, on the Linville
river, is one of the beauty spots
of the State. From Linville up
to Alta Pass, the summit of the
range, there are tunnels after
tunnels three in succession in
terposing at one point in such
direct line that one can clearly
see through all at one time.
The grade is 1.2 compensated,
although the ascent is some
thing like 1,300 feet. In the de
velopmont this line turns upon
itself quite pronouncedly at five
points. From one of the deep
fills as the road winds about the
mountain, the whole valley of
the Catawba, with the encir
cling chains of mountains, is
clearly visible. This has been
designated Observation Point.
After passing the Blue Ridge
tunnel at Alta Pass, through
which gap Daniel Boone is re
puted to have made his first and
second trip to the "dark and
bloody" ground of Kentucky, in
the~early days, the road descends
lby gentle grades to Spruce Pine
on the Toe river. This stream is
followed until the Tennessee
State line is reached, where its
name is changed to the Noli
chucky. The scenery all along
the way is particularly beauti
ful especially in what is known
as the Molichucky canyon,the
road following the river for eight
miles with the mountains rising
as much as 1,200 feet directly
over head. After reaching
Unaka Springs, near the foot of
this canyon, the country is
fairly level until Johnson City is
reached. At Erwin the shops
of the new road will be located.
This is 18 miles east of Johnson
City, where the head offices of
the company have been estab
The party reached Johnson
City at 8:10 o'clock in the even
ing and spent the night there.
The next morning the trip was
continued to Dante, Va., which
was reached about noon. Here
actual operations are being con
ducted under direction of the offi
cials of the Clinchfield Coal cor
poration, between 25 and 30 cars
of coal noW being produced daily
whereas in a few weeks this
will be increased to 50 cars. The
further development will be
commensurate with the dem
ands, the supply and resources
being limitless. The scenic
beauty of the line from Johnson
City to Dante, while not so over
whelming as that in the neigh
borhood of Alta Pass, is no less
beautiful. The longest and
most difficult tunnel on the line
is that through Clinch mountain
over 4,000 feet in length, al
though another is contemplated
on the Elkhorn extension, which
will be 15,200 feet in lngth, a1.
most three miles. Dante is the
very center of the coal district.
A number of openings have al
ready been made. Mr. John C.
Winder, president of the cor
poration, a North Carolinian
and well known in Charlotte,
whe now makes his headquagters
in Roanoke, Va., will be located
for the greater part of his time
at Dante after July.
At nearly all points along the
line there is evidence of studied
location and careful engineering
particula-ly along the cliffs of
the Clinch river and at Starne's
Bend, where the new line grad
ually gains an elevation over the
old location in order to strike
high up into Clinch mountain.
The bridges are all of the hea-vi
est steel with strongest concrete
abutments. The equipment con
sists of engines of the latest and
most approved types. 100-ton
passenger locomotives, 125-ton
consolidation locomotives, and
the Mallet type of locomotives
weighing 182 tons. The coal
cars are of 50 tons eath. One of
the sights along the way from
Bostic to Marion is a string of
these cars more than a mile and
a half in length. Fifteen hun
dred more have been ordered,
their cost approximating $1,200
each. A locomotive is now at
the shops for the new road, but
difficulty is being had in getting
it home, owing to the refusal of
onnecting roads to give it pas
sage over their lines. The oper
ition of trains over the new sys
bem is entirely by telephone, this
service being in accord with the
Latest and most approved meth
ds of railway operation.
The party remained in the
Dlinchfield territory four days,
Afficials of the two roads discuss
ing how best to arrange the sche
dules in order to accomodate the
bravel, and the lay riaembers of
he party enjoying the scenery.
l'hat there is to be a great move
ment to the Clinchfield territory
is certain for one has but to see
the country to covet a summer
home there. At present the
hotel accomodations of the re
sorts reached by the new line,
such as Linville Falls and Un
aka Springs, etc. are inadequate.
Effort is being made to promote
building along this line. Spec
ial effort will be made to proper
ly advertise it.
Returning from Johnson City
the cars leave at 8:20 in the
morning Charlotte being reached
without change at 5:15 in the
afternoon. No more delightful
two-days' outing is available in
the State.
Marriage Delayed.
Measles, just plain measles,
but aided and abetted by the
Chicago health department have
baffled young Cupid. In conse
quence the marriage of Miss
Louise Wilson, principal sufferer
from the measles, inasmuch as
she has them and must await
their disappearance before she
can wed Arthur McCracken, has
been postponed at least two
weeks. It was arranged for the
ceremony to take place today:
The wedding announcements
were out and all preparations
had been made Monday for to
day's cesemony. It was to be
at the home of the father of
Miss Wilson. Then, Monday
morning the bride-to-be became
"Mum," muttered Dr. Beaudry
when he had seen the patient.
A very light attack of the mea
sles. I must obey the health de
And the health department
quarantined the house.
Pleading were of no avail.
The bride-to-be became a trifle
superstitious about postponed
weddings and said so. She even
said she would be married today
or not at all, which caused the
prospective bridegroom to urge
that all means be used to per
suade the health department.
But his pleadings were in vain.
The wedding ceremony re-.
mains postponed.

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