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The Pickens sentinel-journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1909-1911, September 09, 1909, Image 1

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THE. PICKENS SE NTINE 0 N
3Eatered April 23, 1903 at P9ke0s, Nb 1as second elass satter4under attafengresu ot marc
39th Yea,,r PICKCENS. S-. C., SEPIT EMBE R 9, 1909.Nnbr1
. State News ]
All tho Litd Now f*,:m In~
A 20,000 school building will be
erected at Union. Bids have
been called for.
The Greeville graded schools
will open fort lhe fall session Mon
day, S.pte-mb-r 1:8.
Robert Brown shot and killed
Ernest Hevwari in Charle-ton.
Both 1arties Ir.. co lorevd.
Collins Jude,. colured, was,
shot and kilt l at Rock Hill bN
Cal Barber,% who made his
Six pn rati ns m heat
have i) ;Id i . a I riestol ill
the last th'n- <:%, . None re
sulted fatalld.
A Chzi-ter ii::, 4 --n Ked to
the ManLin .1li of Man
1lhn;.-. Thee .ia of the cn
ecrn is 8., :
It isr, l:rt r! hiati ie S- ' r d1 r(
Air Line r Nav wilhild toChar
leston if the C. ( . & 0. dot s not.
Yancey M. Mayv, who shot and
killed C. B. Tid we!l at Edgefield,
has b-:en r onasPd on bond in the
sum of $1.
Dr. W. II. 1 :wil, treasarer
4 the Edis1-(a ! Orangeu
has been - osted on the chiarge
of s
\'X -W gal
by state conwtihbls at Ten Mile
Hill, near Charleston.
The school trestees of Aiken
county hav omranlizel an asso
ciation f the prp . of better
ing the schools in that county.
J. H. Litt!,john, a 1,ad!inz cit
izen of Jonesvill, is dea(ld. He
was 78 years oli ai,d left an es
tate worth about 60,000.
Bernt, Riise'. a Norwegian.
serving on the United States -rev
enue cutter Y:mavicraw. was
drowned in the Charleston har
bor by fal!lin ove- rboard.
The Southern Power company
has surveyed a route from Great
Falls to Newberry, and the work
of erecting the towers for the
tranmission wireS will begin at
ani early (date.
Glen Robinson, the cook on the
advertising car of H{a ag's shows.
which was on a siding in the
yards of the Southern at Spar
tanhure, was arre-sted by Police
mnan Cudd Friday night on the
charge of stealing coal from the
*Southerp. He' w'A convicted1
and sentenced to pay a fine of
* 15 or serve thirty dlays on the
I chain gan'c.
The barn- na stables, all comn
-bined, corn crib and some other
Lout houses, inlding five mules.
*one horse, 8,000 b)undles5 of fodl
decr, farming tools. ploughis and1
other implements of Mr. B. WV.
Whitiock, three miles south of
Jonesville, were all burned Fri
(lay night. The fire was before
midnight. The lo:ss falls hear
ily on Mr. Whitlock, as he is a
man in ordinary circumstances
and a hard worker.
The C.. C. & 0. bridge over
the Pacolet river near Spartan
burg was com~npleted Saturday
and track-laying has progress
ed( somue t:iaance bey-ond to
war(is BrIoadt river, where the
b)ridtge over that st reami will be
the link ta~ i ill cnnect the
track from Be 4ti to Spartan
b)urg gy se ob: Sh the
six weeks it \\i r conl;:K
attempted mield hi S:naar
afternoon a~ lmh s han , Gm
ber street. >Y- r.nnell, who
is quite an nm-d manu, has been
in ill heahh for a Nm1nhLa of
vear's andl was depndrnent. He
is said to have heen affected by
kidney trouble'. which depree5ed
him mentallv', and he secured a
razer a2.! e.!he.d his throat
twice. W\hil the cuts wvere deep
they are not necessarily fatal.
Paragraphed.
The Grendel Mills, of Green
wood, has been given the right
to increase its capital stock from
"400,000 to $500,000.
Roland Steele, a prisoner ser
ving sentance on the chain gang
at Rock Hill, was shot by Mart
Williams, another convict.
A double funeral was held Mon
day afternoon in Greenville.
Rosetta Maxwell, colored, age, 50
years, and her daughter, aged
17, died Sunday evening at nine
o'clock.
The forty-first annual neting
of the York B-.ptist Association
will convene with Flint Hill
circh, in Fort Mill township,
on Tuesday, September 7. and
remain in session three (lays.
On Sunday, shortly after noon
0. B. Bryon, about 25 years old,
who resides in the Olympia mill
village, while swimming in the
Congaree river, near the boat
line landing, in Columbia, met
death by drowning. The body
has not been recovered.
J. J. Keller & Co., architects
of Rock Hill, were awarded the
contract for remodeling the York
county jail at Yorkville. New
steel cells will be installed and
die building put in proper shape
,o keep the prisoners safe.
Reports from all sections of
Union county in the last few
(lays show that there has been
a very marked falling off in
the prospect for a good cotton
crop. This is believed to be
largely due to the cool, dry
eather during the first of the
week, and the hot spell later in
the week. The oinion seems
general that only about a two
third crop will be gathered.
The following changes have
been announced in the postal
service in South Carolina:
At Ninty-Six, WilliamH. She
hard is appointed a rural mail
carrier, with James B. Pratt as
substitute: at Charleston,
Irvine J. Hart is appointed post
master, vice J. C. King, resig
ned, and at Montville, Lauren~s
county, Thomas WV. Boyd is ap
pointed postmaster, vice R. C.
Watts. resigned. At Messers,
Richland county Lizzie E. Davis
is appointed postmaster, vice D.
B. Cobb, resigned.
John Whiee, a negro living on
C street, in Charleston, while
on a visit to his relatives at
Seven-Mile Sunday morning,
met a fiend from whom he had
borrowed 30 cents, The "'friend'
gave him a gentle hint that
the time had come for settle
ment, but John being "broke'
was unable to meet the demands
so he endeavored to appease his
creditor with soft words1. Tlhis,
however did not soothe the irate
friend and a wrangle follow
ed, which resulted in a leg full
of (duck shot for the unhappy
debtor. John is nowv at the
Roper Hospital, having the in
jured member cared for. He is
in a serious condition. The
name and whereabouts of John's
friend"' are unknown.
The progress and growth of
Ridgeway is evidented by the
establishment of three ne w local
enterprises within the last fort
night. These are the Fairfield
Publishing company, which will
o)ublish the Fairfield News and
Sa general job printing busi
ness: F. P. Hinnant, who is a
daler in general merchandise
and handled a cotton seed busi
ness, and A. T. Jones, civil
engineer and contractor. An
interesting feature of the latter
firm is that Mr. Jones has en
gagedl one of the most dilapid
ated buildings in town in which
to locate his offices and purposes
to advertise his business by ren
ovating it with concrete work,
thereby showing just what can
be done at little expense in im
roving property by this means.
A Lutheran church will be
established in Greenville. The
Lutherans are about fifty or
seventy-five strong there, and
they have determined to build
a house of worship. The
church building will not cost
less than $10.000, and will prob
ably cast much more that this
figure.
A comimission had been issued
by -the secretary of state to the
Citizens Bank of Allendale.
The capital of the company is
$30,000. The petitioners of the
company are W. A. Aull, R.
Wol, W. J. Pohns. J. P. Gray,
LeRoy Wilson., Jr., and T.
Charorez. The company will
do a general banking business.
Policeman Burke, of the Co
iumbia police, shot and fatally
wounded Julian Knight, a neg
.ro hackiman, in front of the state
capitol, on Main street, Saturday
night, after the ofilcer had been
cuIt in the face several times.
Several shots were fired. One
of the bullets entered the fore
head of the negro. The negro
had been arrested for fact driv
in and was resisting arrest vio
lently.
Two women have been sent to
the Roper hospital by the Char
leston police department., suffer
ing from insanity, believed to
have e n)Ti induced( by the use of
cocaine. At the police station
an otlicer hadf to enter the cell
I of a female. arrested as a disor
derlv character, and make be
lieve that he was killing the
m11onikev which tho woman
thought she was seeing, too
much cocame again )eing attri
buted as the cause of the wo
man's hallucinations.
On Friday night, Charlie
Poole, a well known character
about Greenville, assaulted his
common-law wife, Stella, and
left her for dead. He was
subsequently caught and jailed
by Deputy Sheriff Hunsinger.
The woman was immediately
attended by Dr. W. L. Mauldin.
She had been beaten over the
head in a. f right ful m anner with
a heavy brass pitcher, the side
comipletelv crushed in, the left
eye gouged out, necessitating its
removal and her condition is
serious. She may not recover.
Mrs. J. K. Fant, aged 60
years, widow of the late Rev. J.
K. Fant, a Baptist minister of
Spartanburg county, committ
ed suicide at her home at Cam
pob)ello Monday morning by
drinking carbo( lic acid. She
died within a few seconIds after
swallowing the poisoni. The
onlyX motive that can be assig
ned for enhing hei- life is that
she had become (despondent be
ca.use( of continuedl ill health.
IFor some time she had been ex
cee(dingly melancholy and seem
ed to be constantly b)rooding andl
worrying about the state of her
health. Heir condition was such
that a close watch was kept
over her by Miss Bessie Fant, a
daughter of the dleceased. She
leaves three (laugh ters. Her
husband died about five years
ago.
Mr Clemi F. Gordon, supervi
sor of Yorkcounty, was at Ches
ter last week for the purpose of
makig arangeentswith
county's jail prisoners while the
York jail is being repaired. The
arrangements were sat isf actor
ily mlade, and1( the(~squad of priso
ners numbering eight or ten will
be brought down one day this
take care of the numbier already
in prison1 and1 such others as may
be inlcarCerated from time to
time, provided his accomimoda
tions are not over-ta xed and he
does not find it inconvenient
thereby t.o handle Chester's priso
ners. T he entire upper floor of
the York county jail will be torn
away, andl con verted into a
mlodernl prison with steel cells
and other devices for keeping
prisoners safely and securely in
Mr. W. R. Anderson, deputy
sheriff of Hamilton county, was
brought home from Berry Stat
ion, Ga., where he was striken
with paralysis last week. . He
had been on a business trip and
while at Berry he was suddenly
s'riken speechless. Mr. Ander
son is not doing well, and it is
feared that it will be some time
before he will be restored to
health.
The survey of the Florence
city streets by Engineer J. M.
Johnson, representing Contract
ing Engineer H. S. Juodon of
Savannah, was finished some
days ago and Messrs. Johnson
and Joudon are busy in finishing
up the laying out of the work
for the complete system of sew
erage which the city will install.
As soon as the platting is com
pleted and specifications prepar
ed bids will be advertised for and
as soon as the contract work is
assigned it will get under way
and be pushed to immediate
completion.
Mr. Joseph A. McCullough,
a prominent lawyer of Green
ville, has purchased a tract of
land of five acres lying just out
side the city limits, on the car
line to the Country Club. He
has donated this lot to the Brun
er Home, for the erection of a
building with equipment to cost
not less than $8,000 or $10,000
for the use of the Bruner Home
which at present has its head
larters on leased rroperty.
The Bruner Home is a charity
I organization for the care of de
serving children who cannot be
gotton into other orphanages.
It is expected that the new build
I ing will be begun as soon as
the subscriptions, which will be
taken among the, town people,
shall have amounted to enough
to warrant such p move.
NEW TYPE OF ROAD.
Telford Blocks With Liquid Asphalt as
a Binder to Be Tried In Jersey.
New Jersey is to experiment with a
new type of road, and the experiment
will be tried in Essex county. where
the county engineer, James Owen, pro
poses to lay roads in West Orange.
Nutley, Belleville, Verona, Short Kills.
Millburn, West Caldwell and other
places. The state is to pay one-third
of the cost of the-se new roads, each
municipality one-tenth of the cost of
the roads within its limit, and the
county pays the balance. Mount Pleas
aune avenue, West Orange, is to be the
first scene of the new road trial. Tel
ford pavement is to be used under a
new formula prepared by Mr. Owen,
and he thinks that such a road will
stand nutopobile traffic splendIdly.
and, while it will not be c' -soutely
dustless, it will be less dusty . .an any
other road of a similar kind.
After the telford blocks are laid in
.stead1 of using clay as a binder liquid
asphalt will be used. This hais been
successfully tried as a binder in con
nectioin with patent road formula, and.
whilie it will add about 15 cents a
siuare yard to the cost. it will be
cheaper in the end. The foundation of
the road will be constructed in the or
dinary way aind chinked in the usual
manner. Then a coating of stone
sceninr:s will be applied and roiled.
Next will come a four inch layer of
broken stone and another thorough
rolling. On top of this will be put a
thin layer of screenings to fill the in
LATING A TELFOR.D FOUNDATION.
trstices: then the liriuid asphmalt will
be put on hot in the pr1oportion of onel
nnd (one-t hird gaillons to e;o-h stiuare
var-d of surfac-e. It will then be giveni
fromn five to ten ho urs to peniet ratte
a nd then anlot her c~a t ing of screeninas
and the r-ead rolled iaaini. and then it
will be r-eady for use.
Many will not agree with Mr. Owen
that teiford bl>ek is good for auitomio
biing, as it is w~ell known it is ve~ry
hard on tires, but it makes a very
solid, even roatd, and until the horse
drawn vehicic-s make it bad it is al!
right.
What county en:rineers and other
road builders should try to do is to
build a road that will stand the horses
and the iron shod wagons, and after
doing that they will have solved the
g.Gna rnads nroblem.
A FATAL rR1ENSHIP,
Devotion of Princess Lamballe
to Marie Antoinette.
SLAIN BY A PARISIAN MOB.
The Assassination of the Princess.
Who Escaped and Returned to Com
fort Her Friend, Was One of the
Worst Acts of the Reign of Terror.
It was in the historic Carignanc
palace at Turin that the Princess Lam
balle was born. Her father was: Lou,.
Victor of Carignan, of the royal house
of Sardinia and Savoy.
Her child'iood was spent In Turin
during the period that follinwed the
defeat of the French through the bril
llant military tactics of Prince Eigene
of Vienna. At eighteen she was mar
ried to Stanislaus, son of the 1)uke of
Penthievre of France.
The chief place of this duchy was
the town of Lamballe. about fifty
miles from Rennes. The Prin-e (d
Lamballe died in one year. and a, sooi
as etiquette allowed a marriage witl
Louis XV. was contemplated. This
did not go Into effect, however, and
the princess withdrew from the vourt.
She met Marie Antoinette when that
princess first came to Paris, and they
were mutually attracted and became
friends. The Princess de Lamballe
saw the dangers to which this young
foreigner was exposed, and when 31a
rie Antoinette became queen of France
In 1774 and appointed the princess su
perintendent of the royal household she
entered upon her duties with the sym
pathetic understanding of a loyal
friend. The closest ties of affectionate
regard drew these two young royal
personages together. Through the care
less gayety of court life the Princess
de Lamballe was the judicious friend.
When Illness came to the queen she
was faithful and devoted.
When the storm of adversity broke
over the royal family and it was ar
ranged that an escape should be ef
fected mine. de Lainballe got safely
to England, going across from Dieppe.
but the royal family were arrested at
Varennes and declared traitors to
France.
Mine. do Lamballe's devotion was so
true slre at once hastened back to
Paris to be with the queen. Her
friends urged and implored her to
think of the danger to herself and
pointed out that she eould b of n
real service at such a critical time.
But she knew better than they did
what a comfort her presence would he.
and her heart was entirely occupied
with the sorrows of her -soverei:n.
She was allowed to become a pri-cner
with the royal family In the temple.
and for one week she w:1s a chev:fil
and helpful companion. full of affee
tionate atts to make the hours less
bitter and giving to 'Marie Antoinette
the loving, devoted care that only a
friend so loyal could give.
When those about the prison saw
what an influence of joy 3mie. de
Lamballe brought to the royal prison
ers an order was Issued for her re
moval to the prison of La Force. From
here she was taken for a mock tiai
and offered her life If she would take
oath against the monarchy. With
scorn she refused to do this.
Then came one of the most terrible
acts of the period of the reign of
terror- She was delivered to the peo
pe, wild with the desire for blood.
and was killed in the courtyard of La
Force prison. They stabbed her with
sabers, cut off her head, tore her hear-t
from her body while it was yet pal
pitating and then dragged her body
through the streets to the temple.
On. the way there they stopped at a
hairdresser's and made him rouge the
beautiful face and friz and powder the
hair. This man nearly diedl with fear
while at this awful wvork. When it
was cdone and the head set on a pike,
the long, fair curls of her pretlty hair
fell about the neck. Thosc of t he
mob who suggested this hideous work
upon the head said. ".intoinettec will
now rec(ognize her frie:d."
The hmeat- was ailso ;'ut on v
of a pike and the route to the 1e:@!e
resumfedl. Theii ro)ya!t:f:nnily were to
gether, and Louis was ie::i:': t: I I e.
when they heard the slimni uf the
mob and 10oud. high vel' e,: S: .:':K
the door was opened vi. lent !y. and as
they all started to their feet some men
pushed thetmselves ipast tie gua:rd and
shcuted to the kin::: "The peop:.e have
something to show you. if you' don't
wishi them to b;rin:: it up h ere you
had1 better- go to :!e winldiw."
With the deadly fear in thieir- hear5
they did as5 dlir-ected :iial lo'ks 0 .
the dead ando painted f:wo * f ':1 r
voted friend a:ad also ,.aw"a hr tnd
heart and lier- poor bodyf. haI cu yI
the sabers of thuese wreot'lhs.
With a cry of hrr-or ;2nd despa;ir
3arie Antoinette f:l!l into a st'i- of
stupor. M me. Elizabet h for'ed !:r
into a chair. :and lher chuildreu e:., to
her andl cieid wit h fe'ar. L.ouis truied
to control his voice as he sahd with
pat hetic d ignity. "-You mi:gbt lav e
spaed the qlueen the knowledge of
this fright ful calamity." - Boston
Globe.
"Yu To Make a Hit.
"Yusend me violets every morn."
said tebautiful girl.
the do," rsoddthe ardent lover.
"n o attewhonde cost."
"Quite so. Now. why not send up a
Ibuch of asparagus tomorrow instead.
It would be just as expensive and
wou!d make a big hit with l)a."-Pltts
burg Post.
In adversity it Is easy to despise
life. The true, brave man is he who
an endum.e to be minserhle.-Mnrtial.
WOES Of THE PURSER
He Has Troubles of His Own on
the Trip Across the Atlantic.
MUST HAVE A GOOD TEMPER.
His Time Wasted by Foolish Ques
tions and Trivial Appeals, Mainly by
Women Passengers, Yet He Has to
Be Always Polite and Agreeable.
"Yes," said the purser on one of the
big liners recently to the writer, who
happened to be taking a trip from Liv
erpool to New York. *we have our
own troubles, I can assure you. and I
sometimes envy the captain his solIl
t:iry enjoyment of the bridge, even
during a sixty mile gale. Passengers
sc;-i to think that the purser is'put
(ot a ship simply to answer foolish
q!:est ions.
")f course there is a good deal
witci we have to par up with as be
part of our legitimate duties.
t-iigh when a passenger brings us a
!:.!ndIred dollar yellow back and asks to
1-,% It changed Into EnglisP, French.
rman and Spanish money and stipu
a:s that there must be twice as much
F-rench as German and half the re
mainder in English silver coins, pre
suinably for tips, is it any wonder that
we occasionally lose our tempers?
"Ard then, again, the purser Is al
ways appealed, to for the most trivial
ihings. A woman passenger comes to
the window, and if it is closed she will
hairg on it till it is opened, no matter
if the sign is there as large as life that
he of,ice hours are from 11 to 2 and 4
to G o'clock and she is honori.ng me
with a call at 3 p. m!. Then, when the
window is raised for fear she will
smash it to smithereens, she says,
with a sweet smile: 'Oh, Mr. Purser,
I am so sorry to disturb you. I know
it is not your hour of business, but
could you tell me if we will really
land next Thursday, as I told my
brother we would, and I know he will
be waiting for me on the dock.'
"Of course I am polite, but I have
some difficulty in persuading her that
I am not running the ship, and neither
can I control the elements. She goes
away with an expression that clearly
shows she thinks I am keeping some
thing back and It will be my fault if
we do not arrive at the time appointed.
-I remember on one trip when the
wenather was particularly stormy a
woman passenger knocked at my door
_nrter othce hours. - of course-and
begged that she might speak to me for
a few minutes. I politely asked her
to enter. and then, her eyes starting
out of her head with the excitement of
suppressed emotion, she implored me
to draw up her will. I protested that
I was not a lawyer, but do you think
she would be satistied with that ex
cuse? Not much! There and then I
had to draw up a document in the
best legal phraseology I could muster.
"When it was tinished and I and my
assistant had signed It she gave the
young fellow a sovereign for his trou
ble, and as for me-well, she took on'
a very handsome ring and insisted on
my accepting it. I have that ring yet,
but what became of the donor I never
kuew, for when the storm abated and
we were safe in port she never so
much as bade me goodby, though I
had repeatedly asked her to take back
her ring. She was a v'ery rich woman
evidently, and the 'bequests' In that
will I dIrew up) made my eyes bulge.
"Most passengers when we have been
a day or so out bring the purser all
their valuables, for which they receive
a receipt. Some nervous women seem
to think that a 'strong room' at sea is
not a very secure place for their jew
els, and they insist on seeing their
treasures at least every day. One wom
an passenger made my lIfe a burden
during a recent voyage by taking her
valuables out and putting them in
again three times a day untIl I told her
that the next time she called for them
I would not take them back again,
whereat she told me, with a sour look,
thamt 1 was imp)ertinent and she would
inform the capltain. I believe she did
so, but the captain gave her a word or
two of advice regarding the implicit
trust which should be placed in a
purser, and this quieted her. In fact,
she afterward came to me and apolo
gized for her seeming rudeness.
"As a rule, I conduct church service
on board, as the captain does not en
joy the work, hut prefers to remain on
the bridge. Many a funeral service
also has fallen to my lot, and I have
even officiated at a christening. I am
usually the one to wvhom a passenger
iies when he is dissatisfied with his
ca bin, thbough the duty of changing a
stateroom really rests with the head
t'ward. Then, again, It is thm purser
who is appealed to when the passenl
grs elect to hold a concert, and the
young folks usually rush to him also
when they want to have a dance on
deck. A purser can be very popular
or the reverse, and unless you have an
excellent temper you stand a good
chance of bin:g the reverse.
"The funniest experience 1 had was
on a r cenI t tr'ip, when there was on
board a little ;;irl about twelve years
old. She struck upl a warm friendship
with me and would walk the deck for
miles if I would only accompany her.
She fell very ill during a storm and
refused to be comforted. Her mother
asked her if there was anything she
could do which would ease her suffer
ing, and the young imp said there was.
If she wvould only 'skidoo' and let the
urser read a book to her she would
feel better. And the indulgent mother
came to mie, stated the case, and--well,
I complied with her request and read
'to thie chl fsor a litte wuhile ech eday
decok an.e n".-TLonidn Tit-Bin
GRAVEL MADE ROADS
Highway Engineer Shows Why.
They Are Easily Built.
ROADBED MUST BE KEPT DRY.
Surface Should B. So Shaped That
Water Will Run Off and Not Pens
trate-Value of Underdrains, Side
Ditches and Rolling.
At a meeting of the Missouri High
way Engineers' association, held at
Jefferson City, F. P. Spalding of Co
lumbia, Mo., read a paper or gravel
roads and said In part:
Gravel or broken stone when used
for a road is Intended to form a hard
iurface, which will resist the wear
:>f the traffic and which will shed the
water without softening In rainy
weather or when snow is melting.
rhe gravel, or macadam. is not In
Itself a rigid structure, but depends
upon the firmness of the earth below
to carry the loads which come upon
it. The object of the gravel i- to make
the surface harder and moe resistant
to wear and the action of water than
the earth surface that it replaces, and
it can only be effective when the road
below it Is properly shaped and drain
ed and when the surface has such
form as to cause the water whili
falls upon it to quickly run off with
out penetrating the road.
Filling mudholes with gravel is not
making a gravel road. This is only
wasting good material. I can recall a
mudhole into which gravel was regu
larly dumped every spring for years.
and each time when the ground thaw
ed out In the following spring the niud
was again on top and ready to swal
low another dose of gravel. Probably
there is enough gravel in that hole.
200 or 300 feet long. to make a mile
of good gravel road. Finally a road
BAD ROAD THAT GRAVEL WoULD IMPROVE
supervisor came along. who put In a
few hundred feet of tile and crowned
the road surface, and there has been
no mudhole there since.
The form which should be given to
an earth roadbed and the methods of
drainage to be used depend in each in
stance upon the local conditions sur
rounding the road. The ability of earth
to sustain a load depends in a large
measure upon the amount of water
contained by it. Most earth forms a
good 'foundation so long as It is kept
dry. but when wet it loses its sustain
ing power, becoming wet and Incoher
ent. When softened by water soil is
easily displaced by the settling of the
road or forced upward into any space
that may exist In it. In order, there
fore, that the loads may be uniformly
sustained and the surface of the road
kept firm and even It is of first impor
tance that the roadbed be kept dry.
The improvement and maintenance of
a road are therefore largely questions
of drainage. the~ objects beIng to pre
vent water from reaching the road and
to provide means for immiediately re
moving such as does reach it before
the soil becomes saturated and sof
tened.
Surface drainage is always necessary
If the body of the road is to be kept
In a dry condition and is accomplished
by having the surface of such form
that water falling upon it will quickly
run into the gutters. Underdrains will
not drain water from the surface of a
road, and unless the crown is at all
times maintained and the surface kept
smoothi water is likely to stand upon
the surface and penetrate into the road.
And this is just as true of a gravel or
stone road as of the earth surface.
At the side of the road longitudinal
ditches must be provided for the pur
pose of carrying the water drained
from the surface of the road to some
point where it may be turned Into a
natural drainage channel. In many in
stances these side ditches also carry
drainage from land adjacent to the
road. The size and form of. the gut
ters will naturally depend upon the
quantity of water to be carried and
the slope of the gutters. Where the
quantity of water to be carried Is
small the extension of the slope of the
road surface may be sufficient wIthout
any special gutter being provided.
In forming a roadbed upon which to
place a gravel or macadam surface the
earth roadbed should be made as firm
and smooth as possible before the
placing of the surfacIng material.
Wherever possible the earth after be
ing brought to grade and given the
proper form for receiving the surface
should be rolled with a heavy roller
until it is firmly pac!:ed and able to
yield efficient support to the surface.
In any case the surface should not be
placed until the roadi ed is thoroughly
settled and Packed in place.
Highway Maint:mning Scheme.
Many German hi zhways are lIned
with cherry treqs. When the fruit
jis ripe it Is gathered and sold, and the
proceeds go to the fund fo ait
Inoth highwnvit

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