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A Manchester, Eng., Nov. (By Mail). ( ) time lilM C the ar- - t i ,l)tKT IK4S TIH- leriUeUt III Europe been great as lt is now. m inc iuu I , . from the Baltic south , way of th- three Bal tic itatCf, Poland and the , down to tlu- Black ,l iii all the southern of Rutiii there if mi ind a, nit and miiery. Tlu Rou- though messages from time to time announce that they art beginning to evacuate Hungary, arc still lapesl and have so thoroughly stripped the un- a , country that ne icarcc knows how it will iur i the future unlesi it be driven by it tortures, as th ortureri intend, to secure actual union with Rou ma Konmania defies and despises tin Parti Con ference rther to the west DWnnunio holds triumphantly lawful prize at Fiume. The Italian Government veriest to eject him, became it has no hold over tin rmy and navy. It is well aware thai it it orders th, trmy to march agamtl D'Atmunaio, tin army will di e) snd i- much more likely to march against the o nment D'Annunsio, too, despises and d fiei tin iv Conference. Meanwhile the Extreme Socialisti in Italy are laying their plans tor a revolution. It DWnnuniio and his Imperialist friends set themselves ib the established government, that, say the So ts, a fame thai two can play at. and with the : of a COal ICS! winter Coming on there may he a dial CC tor a Midden blow aimed by the revolutionary foi i against the established system and the mo nai - hical regime. Vnarchy reaches its height in the Baltic provinces. There are three governments there the Esthontan, the Lithuanian and the Lettish- whose chief aim is to g- lure their own independence. They have broken awav front the old Russia and they are afraid both of a 1 Germany and of an Imperialistic Russia which tnighi he set up on tin- ruins of the Bolshevist Gov ernment They have all been fighting in one decree or mother against the Bolshevists at the instigation of the Alius, hut latterly they have begun to ask what their tatt is likely to be if the proteges of the Paris Con- e, Denikinc and Kolchak, get to Moscow and ih themselves in power. Will may they ask. Kolchak has refused to guar inte the independence of these Baltic states. He goes rther thatl to say that their fate must eventually be submitted to a constituent assembly of all Russia, while Denikinc has come out boldly with a declaration ; "united and indivisible Russia1 which bodes ill tor the border states. Latterly, therefore, all three of tin Baltic states, and Finland, too, have shown an in g disposition to make a peace "of their ow n w ith tlu Bolsheviki, while the aim of the Alius has been I LdC them and to keep them at war with the U . Government The Baltic states, too, it will be seen, have no high opinion of the Paris Conference. Hie) do not believe that it has the power to its wi!ies on its Russian Allies and they sfl re fore disposed to shift for them selves. r complication arises from the preset c in Lettland of Von dcr Gohs and his German divisions. He. too. has beer ng the Peace Conference. In p the 1 1 r -; stance, the Conference, be- i tog more afraio ol tsolsnevisra than of Germany, actually ordered Germany to k' p these troops of hers in Courland, in ord thai they might form a barrier i in incursion by the Russian Redi s" ' Germans kept them there and man ilunteers were raised in Germany and it out and joined them. Then tlie Alli k er s more afraid of (ierinanv than isin. Thev became aware that der (ioltz army, disciplined, well- ! and reinforced by many volun n becoming i serious danger to altic states and possibly to the So - vernment of Germany. It might use of by the militarists in Gcr- effed i counter-revolution, the Allies ordered Germany to this army back. s it proved. Gcr tlighl order but she had1 little power inian Government was itself htened lest these tronns should be or its overthrow by the militarist who cared little foe the German ( ' rnmem and less for the Pan- Con In fact. Von der dolts men to make war on tin Letts, nr l 's. it d though no one can say positively s their aim and part in the extraor- 11,1:11 "illusion which prevails. Jems most likely that they will cast 01 with the White" Russians wn i, they can, aid in the war against tin ttolshe iki. ri. .. .... one quality which is common to Incse wars and brawls is the weak .4 lilt Ulllt Itltf llMit.1 ... im.t. ..... ii (h; Supreme Council at Paris Von der "'t. Konmania. I Wnnunzio the storv everywhere the same. Kach rebel learns "Olli i,,s predecessors and each, as he re OflS With imiimiitv . I.. .1 mimii,1 in i s oimi nuin mniselt. The Cauldron of Europe Hy . I'. CROZIER least haVC taken lact r the ultimate Force, All peoples i . . aim reKuiaiea tneir could be discovered, wc should at iirst nep toward finding a remedy. I P to the tune of the armistice at the back of all diplomacy was and governmenti recognised this actions by the knowledge. Consciously or unconsciously, tney thought in terms of ultimate Force that is to my, of war conducted by arum s and fleets. Bui now, over a large part of tin world, Force, and the possibility of the application of Force, has almost vanished. That ultima ratio can no longer be appealed to. At the same time no other Compelling influence has been put in its place. Only a few months ago the Paris Conference, which represent! the greatest of the world9! powers, would have said to a recalcitrant state (like RoU mania) or a rebellious individual (like D'Annunsio): "Yon will do this or that by hah past nine tomorrow night or We w ill make you." But there is no iuch alternative today. The Council Cannot 'make" the rebels do this .r that. h'-rce. as represented by the great popular armies, has largely disappeared. They have been demobilised. I hey w ill not light They are bone weary of fighting. So sick are they of being made the instrument! of the doctrine of Force, so weary are their people! of the application of tin- doctrine, that the British troops have had to be brought away from Archangel, French tn.ops would not fight in the Black Sea, the Italian Government had to promise to send no more mu nitions in Italian bottoms into Russia against the I 'Kheviki. The peoples of the ( ireat Powers have largely abandoned Force from iheer weariness. But their governments were wholly unprepared fr such con summation. The diplomacy of tin governments still depends on the same old elements. They still act as though ForCC were behind them. H it it is not. and they have no substitute, f you abandon Force as the ultimate means of making your will prevail in the world, what is the alternative to be? The idealists put for ward tin conception of a League of Nation! which would be inspired by certain ethical notions of the re lationship of peoples. But the Allies have not up to the present succeeded in translating the League into ac tion. There is a scheme, but it only includes a pari of the civilised world and sme even of that part, winch has ostensibly adopted it. openly acts in violation of its principles. This is the secret of the impotence of the Paris impose Supreme Council. It cannot rely on Force nor can Caucasus Neighbors ROM the edge of of B this saurj . teer- the i cialn-t DC 111 main Si brim- nan The fril, tin Caucasus mountains on rmenia comes news that Turks and Kinds grc threatening Kri an. Frivan as a name means nothing t us, perhaps. The fact that it is located in the region from which the white or Caucasian race gets its name will ex cite only a passing interest. But- it is a republic. Its 2,500,000 people have formed a democracy. They are ap pealing to the democracies of the West to help them preserve their in dependence. Let the word "republic'" be men tioned, and distant Frivan looks near. We do not know Frivan. but we real ize that someone in the passes of the mountains has kindled a watchfire of liberty. We cannot speak the language of Frivan. but we know that the preciottl writing! of our freedom must have been translated into that language. They have spoken not to our heads but to our hearts. There was a time when per haps the mere republicanism of Frivan might nt have stirred US. Bttt we real ize today, after the experiences of the past few years, what it is to contend for principles of liberty. The danger in which the western democracies have been makes US appreciate more keenly what perils may cloud the life of that Oriental Switzerland. So we are Kad to be neighbor to Frivan. ignoring the vain interval of seas and mountains. The liberty for which they contend against their enemies is not their liberty alone. They fight not for a republic but for a republic anism, not for their own self-rule but for the self-determination of us all. Neighbor by nearness of spirit, kindred by kinship of soul, and a comrade in the world-wide march of democracy, this is Frivan to Ui I In Fairness to the Mexican it in t ami. J all Th, lerc w ill he in i ne:i( e ill iirpt., some say. until the Coum il once f ,nr all asserts itself, and this the pncil does not or cannot do. The Conn :;V otlnrs, has now all the authority ujr; llJJ league of Nations can assert in , Sliest stages: if it cannot even reduce , Roumanian! to order, how will the fMW be able to carry Ottt its will? Win then, that the Supreme Council vs"" and rebellion flourishes? that 1S T so king as the public is asked to believe that tin- Mexican is a rascal. bandit b choice am! loater Dy circum stance, there w ill continue to be a w ide and unconquerable chasm between that COUntry and the Cnited States Statistics are coldly truthful, but they are not the whole truth, they do not register In units the presence or lack of opportunity, the nature of en vironment, the presence or absence oi leadership, and a dozen other factors in the industry and character of a people. Heme statistic show a poor case for tin M skan, ami he has never tried nor cared very much, about putting a case for himself. Responsible men. who haVl studied the Ui t an at fu st hand. hae tWO prime feeling! toward him: the tirst is ,t tor tin handicaps under whi h In lives, and the second is optimism for his usefulness if eer he cts a chance. Some are lazy, often because they have never been shown any virtue in toil and. in the past, their toil not seldom has benefited others than themselves. Sotm are at times dissolute, shiftless and ir responsible. but that initial weakness has been developed largely by the wa in which unscrupulous foreigner! have handled them ; liquor has been one of their handiest weapons. It is stiKKested t fiat a revision of the national attitude toward the Mexican will go far toward removing the irrita tion with which the average person re gards the southern republic; he may no? fulfill our gcneroui conception of ideal citizenship, but that, at bottom, is leaf his fault than ours and others who should know better. it appeal to pr in iples of Right freely accepted and applied b a great Lgamss oi Peoples. It can apply neither violence nor tlu moral authority of a united public COnsCM nCC to the prob lems of Ettropf. For this rea son it is mistrusted or con demned or Openly defied, and opportunity MSaeS to tin- hands of anyone who is still disposed or has the nn ans to apply Force. This is the kev to much that is happening in Eastern Europe. There the nationalist and territorial passions of the less civilised, the more primitive, people! have been awakened with disastroui results. They are not yet satiated with the idea of fighting, which comes easily to theffl as the natural means of expressing their will. THAT is why the Roumanians today are in so strong a position. For themselves they are willing to apph the old weapon of Force and tiny know that in all probability they can do so with impunity, for not only are the Powers at Taris divided in couiw 1 but as the Roumanians calculate rightly they are in no position to send a military expedition against Konmania; their peoples and their armies would not sutler it. The same reason has enabled Von der Coltz and still enables DWnnunzio to hold Ins ground against the Allies, and the chances are that Europe has by no means seen the last of stub adventures and adventurers. It ma well be. for instance, that tin German military and monarchist Clique may arue that if by force of arm- the) overthrow the German Republic the Allies w ill be unable to intervene against them by force of arms and that it would he worth their while to run the risks of the blockade. But the main question is. how are tin Allies and Associated Powers, how is the civilized world, to grap ple with this state of anarchy which afflicts so much of Europe! The critics of the League Of Nations are fond of pointing to the present confusion as a sign of the impotence of the League. They do not ee that what is wrong is precisely that WC have not too much but too little League. There is j yet no true League in spirit or in substance and the COnsCCJUence i that every high-handed Power or impulsive adventurer can take an independent course, secure in the knowledge that there is no tribunal of the nations wielding a moral authority to which it must give respect, it not obedience, In Europe France is pursuing a policy of her own a policy of the encirclement of Germany by a ring of Powcri which are to preserve a balance iii the French interest against a revived Germany. For that reason France was not wholeheartedly with the United States and Kmjand in the measures by which it WSJ proposed to bring pressure on Roumania when her army occupied Budapest Again France and England have barely been able to Compos their differences over the distribution of the Turkish provinces. Germany, up to the present, is debarred from entering the League. Russia cannot enter because she is a prey tO civil war Whatever the future may bring, there is so far no genuine League of Nations. There is no immediate remedy, it is to be feared, for the dis temper from which a large part of Ktirope is suffering. There is a fever in the Mood which must work itself out. Grandiose ambitions, allied to the misery ami want of peonies, make in evitably for civil and foreign war. But insofar as partial remedy is possible, it lies still in the ideal which inspired the world with hope during the war the realisation of sincere League of Nations. Some, with the bitter experi ence of the last twelve months before them, say that this is now an idle dream. They say mat the Imperialistic Govern meats of Europe have been tried and found wanting and that it is clear now that they will not subscribe to the prin ciples of justice and fair dealing and oi reaped for the rights of nationality on which Mr. Wilson SOUght to found the League. But it is too soon to despair VboVI all. every effort Ottght to be made to put the machine! Of the League in opera tion, to make all its proceeding! public. to raise popular feeling m its behalf. Those who believe m it must work for it in order that the principles ot con duct on winch the League is founded may be enforced on the reluctant gOV eminent!. s soon .is possible Germany should be admitted to the League and Russia, too. tts SOOU as the civil war is over and a itablc government cmcigcs. The moral authority which a genuine leggUC, sincere and reinforced by the bite enemy countries, would be able to wield is the sole instrument adequate to curb tin present lawlessnes! Such a leggUC would have other means of coercion than Force. The would be hold rebels who would stand no against the disapproval of tin- mass of Powers, both Sjreat ami small, and ii thc were recalcitrant the public i tnscieno could express it! condemnation In cutting the offender ofl from intercourse with its fellows m the comitj ot nation! We art still far off this stage. But we set out by wondering what might take the pl.n . th. FoTO to xx fnch men ust-,l to look and to which thev can look with Confidence no longer. They have .i better and highei substitute ready to then hand If anyone has a better plan, let him produce it. only let him not throw stones against a League of Nations it ,s not the League of Na tions hut the lack ot a trw I Ague that leads to the present evils and discontents.