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Get Ready for the Census Taker Washington, EX C, Dec, 1919. IF ON or about the second of January, in answer to a summons from the front-door bell, you arc confronted bv a person who wants to know your name where von live, vonr relationship to the head ot the family, yrour color, your sex, your conjugal condi tion your place of birth, the place ot birth of your parents, what vonr nationality is if you were born in a foreign country, the nationality of your parents it they were born in a foreign country, the number ot yean yon hive been in the United States, whether you are a 'citizen, vonr occupation, whether you work tor others or others work for you. whether you are en gaged in agriculture, whether VOU are attending school, whether von can read and write. don't get angry and slam the door in his face. Tell him what he asks you. He's the census taker. Uncle Sam is counting note, It's I big job, taking the United States CensUt, I bigger job than most persons probably imagine. For instance, this, the fourteenth decennial census, will require the services of nearly 100.000 persons. Out across the froen stretches of wildest Alaska I man bearing the authority of the United States Gov ernment will spur I dog team trom camp to camp as he takes down for Uncle Sam the information for which he has been sent. , Along each winding road that leads to habitation Ot man, even the most desolate in all this country, will plod a census enumerator. Into the sugar and tobacco plantations of the little island of Porto Rico, emissaries of the United States Government will make their way to learn the facts about Potto Rico, to be incorporated in the fourteenth decennial census reports of the United States. Even along the beach ot Waikiki. in far-oti Hawaii, native and beach comber alike will give the facts con cerning himself as demanded by Uncle Sam. In all the continental stretches of the United States, and its far-flung possessions, none will be missed save those in the Virgin Islands and the Philippines. The legislation providing for the taking of this census states that it shall not only be of the popula tion, but of the agriculture, manufacture, forestry and forest products, and of the mines and quarries, in each state, the District of Columbia. Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico, and that during V2() a census of Guam and Samoa shall be taken by the respective governors of those islands, and a census of the Panama Canal Zone by the governor of the Canal Zone. The taking of the census in the Virgin Islands, re cently acquired by the United States by purchase from Denmark already has been undertaken. In the Philip pines the last census was obtained in 1903 at a cost of $300,000 to the American Government, any future cen sus will be undertaken at a date that will not conflict with the great census It is not expected, despite the detailed work done to make ready for the huge task, that the work of the fourteenth census will be completed before July 1, 1922, two vears and a half after its beginning, January 2, 1920. The taking of a decennial census covering the popu lation and resources of the United States is an enter prise which puts to a severe test the resources and abilities of the Bureau of Census. The supervisors and enumerators employed in the compilation of popula- By HAROLD W. ROLAND OF TUP UNBORN INUUBNMM STAFF tion and the collection of the Statistics of "jf number between eighty hvc thousand and t thousand, according to the official figures e Cam Committee of the House ot Kcprescntati s tli l lection of the statistics oi SK .nd Quarries, under Substantial!) separate m'ihmnoi . Win re uire a .pedal field torce of one thousand ft hundred employes, and the number ot clerks Wd OthCT employes in the office will range from i mil !. about one thousand to maximum of about nve thousand. to use the figures submitted bv the com In addition to this great number of workers, n jl necessary, to organize and direct such force ef fectively, to obtain I large number ot competent ad ministrative and supervisory assistants m various posi tions of responsibility and trust. I he mass oi data to be compiled demands for its proper utilization the services also of a large number ot statisticians or statistical experts that the statistics mav be properly tabulated, and mav be analyzed and presented m such i way as to bring out their full significance, njete figures must be made easily accessible, readily under Itood and convenient for purposes ot reference. nC practical Utility of a census to the public depends quite as much upon the wav in which the results are pre sented and published as it does Upon the intrinsic value of the original data. . One of the most important of the preliminary steps taken in connection with the holding of the decennial census is the wrk of the bureaus geographer, With out him, and the work he does, it would be quite im possible to hold the census. It devolves upon the ge ographer to define and map the eighty-five thousand or more enumeration districts into which the territory of the United States must be divided and to determine with respect to geographical conditions the rate of compensation to be paid to the census enumerators. ll- must also prepare the numerous charts and diagrams which are needed in connection with the Census reports. For the taking of the census a special disbursing clerk is appointed, not merely on account of the mag nitude of the undertaking and the large sums to be disbursed, but more specifically because the bureau must adjust and settle promptly the accounts of more than eighty-five thousand enumerators, a task which requires tlie services of a large force of clerks work ing under the direction of a properly qualified official. The disbursing clerk gives bona to tin- Se cretary of the Treasury in the sum of $100,000; he receives a salary of $.1000. Payment made for the services of the enumerators, those who actually perforin the work of obtaining the information, varies, according to the difficulty in obtaining the information, and the particular nature of the work that person does. Xot less than two cents, and not more than four cents for each inhabitant is the ordinary rate of payment, and in addition to the foregoing, twenty to thirty cents is paid for "each establishment of productive industry reported ; not less than twenty nor more than thirty cents for each farm reported; not less than twenty nor more than if cents tor each irrigation or drainage enterprise ! Lrted; and ten cents for each barn and inclosuu containing livestock not on farms. In other d, Sets h is provided that not less than three dollars noi movv than 1 1 K dollars may be paid for eight hours' field work. In addition to the great sums of money paid out for the vrk of enumeration, a large amount is spent in traveling, and in paying the salaries of the officials and clerks appointed for the various work to be done in connection with the task. In many cases the salary, for the fourteenth census have been raised because of the increased cost of living, as have the allowances for subsistence during travel. The total cost of taking this census is estimated at more than eighteen million dollars. . e The director of the census receives $7,5(X) a year; the assistant director. $5. (MM); statisticians, $4,000; and so o!i down the scale to $7J0, the minimum wage, to be paid lr skilled laborei B. One feature of several preceding censuses, in corporated no doubt for political reasons and main tained for those reasons and sentiment, has been dis continued this time. It is the inquiry regarding sur vivors of the Union and Confederate Army or Navy. According to the House Committee on Census, the "enumeration of these war veterans at the last ecus was obviously very incomplete, probably because there are relatively so tew of them in the great mass of tin population that the enumerators in many instances overlooked them entirely or. in other words, neglect- d to ask the question. Kven if the information could be accurately and completely obtained it is doubtful whether the population schedule ought to carry this inquiry in view of the great importance of limiting the number of questions." Among the facts to be obtained on the farm sched ules presented by the enumerators are, in addition to the usual questions, the acreage of the farm, acreage of woodland, the value of farm and improvements, value of farm implements, number of livestock on the farms, ranges, and elsewhere, and the acreage of crops and the quantities of crops and other farm products for the year ending December 31 next preceding tlie enumeration. Inquiries also shall he made as to the quantity of land reclaimed by irrigation and drainage and the crops produced, the location and character oi the irrigation and drainage enterprises, and the capi tal invested in such enterprises. On the schedules of inquiries relating to manu factures and to mines and quarries, the information sought includes the character of organization, whether individual, corporate, or other form ; character of busi ness or kind of goods manufactured; amount of capi tal actually invested, number of proprietors, tirm members, co-partners, officers and the amount of their salaries; number of employes and the amount of their wages; quantity and cost of materials used m manufacture; principal miscellaneous expenses; quantity and value of products; time in operation dur ing the year; character and quantity of power used, and character and number of machines employed. The foregoing sketches some of the high spots touched in a decennial census as taken for the United States Government. When all the information acquired is tabulated it is published in the form of reports and it is possible for any one to obtain the inform from the Bureau of Census. Dangerous Situation in Ireland Dublin. Ireland, Jan., 1920. IT IS not surprising that people who are not in close touch with this country have difficulty in understand ing what the actual situation is here, for those who are on the spot are equally bewildered. And it would seem that this applies to official government circles quite as much as to "the man in the street." There is a universal feeling of jumpiness which manifests itself in different ways. The common topic is "What will happen next?" Newspapers, especially the successive editions of those issued in the afternoons, have an amazing sale. People buy them up auto matically and anxiously scan the scare headings mani festly in search of some sensation which they mo mentarily expect, but of the form it will take they have not the least idea. And they are frequently rewarded with items to satisfy the most ardent craving. Some times (as this week when it was announced that the government had ordered the complete suppression of Sinn Fein and all its allied organizations throughout the whole of Ireland), it is the executive authorities who take the initiative. Sometimes it is a raid for arms by police and military, sometimes a shooting affair in the country. Since I began to write this dispatch a report has come in that a police sergeant has been shot dead with in a couple of hundred yards of where I sit, and at the moment a crowd of people with bated breath are dis cussing the horrible tragedy of a man in the prime of life being done to death in a comparatively busy thoroughfare and no one was apparently able to cap ture the murderer. Detective Sergeant John Barton is the fourteenth policeman who has been murdered in Ireland during the present year. He was not of what is known as the political staff. He was, however, a terror to the ordinary criminal and had done HSOfC than any other man to trace crime and obtain for it condign punish ment. I go across to the central police station quite close to where the crime was committed and I discuss the affair with the staff there. Needless to say they By HUGH CUR RAN are all highly indignant at the loss of a man who in addition to being an assiduous policeman was a genial and beloved comrade. They are all at their wits' end as to who are the members of the secret murder gang who are carrying on this vendetta against the police force at large. Not a single man has been punished for the previous thirteen murders, and there is not a clue upon which to start investigation in this latest instance. In the circumstances it is not to be wondered at that the population is jumpy and anxious. The police after all are the great strong barrier between law abiding citizens and the criminal classes, and the po lice must inevitably be gravely affected by these mur derous happenings. That the present unrest has its roots in the dis turbed political situation must be admitted. But there is hardly any doubt at the same time that certain crim inal classes are taking advantage of the disturbed at mosphere for their own purposes. The executive gov ernment is faced with a problem of extreme urgency as well as extreme danger. What can they do? They have already a military garrison scattered over the country of about 80,()00 men fully armed and equipped. The police are assisted in every possible way to put down crime, and to punish evil. But it is all of no avail. The Sinn Fein organization is credited with being the cause of all the trouble. But Sinn Fein and all its attendant organizations including the Gaelic League have now been suppressed by official proclamation. This means that no assembly of persons in connection with Sinn Fein will be allowed to take place. But such assemblies will take place notwithstanding. The "intelligence department" of Sinn Fein is as well if not better served than is that of the British Govern ing nt. It is well informed of all that goes on, and it knows where and when it will be safe to hold meet ings. The suppression will, in reality, be no suppres sion at all. It may be that arrests will take place, and that convictions may follow. But it is obviously im possible for the government to take three quarters of the population and put them in prison. That is what WOtlM be necessary if the suppression of Sinn Fein is to be made effective. Taken in connection with what is happening here the news from London that Mr. Lloyd Georges cabinet is actually preparing to introduce a Home Rule Bill, seems the height of absurdity. Mr. Macpherson. the Chief secretary, has actually, during the past wek. introduced a new Education Bill which is to revolu tionize the whole educational system. Nobody here be lieves that there is any real intention that either meas ure should become law. If their authors are serious they seem to have but a very faint idea of the situa tion m the country. To the great majority of the coun try neither a Home Rule Bill nor an Flducation Bill conveys any magic meaning. Sinn Feiners will have neither. I hey want an independent republic and when they get that they say they will see to the educational problem themselves. Constitutional Nationalists who are still a considerable force are almost equally fo appreciative. I hey say we want an adequate Home M ie Mill and we will settle our educational problems afterward But they do not believe the Home Rule alk which they say is put about for a purpose, a blind to keep the people quiet. Among any section of Na tHSat hsts there is no belief that Mr. Lloyd George con templates any reform that would appeal to them. They say he is in the hands of Sir Edward Carson and will grant only that of which Carson approves. There is the same cynical feeling in regard to the Education Bill. 'hnously there is no confidence in Ireland in the lucsent administration, and it is to be feared that the suspicions and lack of confidence with which it is re garded is in a large measure responsible for the present grave state of affairs.