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The Economic Ideals of Farmers j FARMERS, as a class, are making an excellent showing these days in the sensible attitude they are taking on public questions. In these tunes of trial and stress, inevitable in the readjustment of the country, when many capitalists and leaders of labor in the cities are giving a demonstration of silly and selfish action peculiar to themselves, the rural popula tion is going ahead calmly, working efficiently, spending carefully, and thinking wisely. Countrv people form the backbone ot the nation. Thev demonstrate it in every crisis, and especially in times of war and induxtrial turmoil. This class ot producers as the Grange has reaffirmed over and over again, believes in a 100 per cent Americanism, and in the fundamental principles of democracy as they have been worked out in America. The average men and women engaged in agriculture have the ideal of true service to the nation. Farmers desire to see the country get back on a normal bai IS soon as poible, and they insist that men in other lines, who in many cases have done all they could to create abnormal conditions, help in this. In the resolutions adopted by the International Farm Con gress at Kansas City this fall we find these words: "At this time, with Europe aflame, and the danger of widespread trouble in America threatening, we call up on all loyal working men to join with loyal farmers in exerting a steadying influence both nationally and internationally. We protest against the policy of or ganized labor in demanding of the farmers more pro duction, while demanding of its members less pro duction. We deplore the calling of strikes in times like thes ! for any other reason than a grave emergency." Thinking farmers are expecting a few encounters with organized labor in the future. They realize that labor in the cities is well organized, and that there will be a definite movement in the next two years to force down the prices of food products. City men as a rule prefer to talk more about reducing food prices than they do about eliminating the useless luxury so com mon today, and service and wages. They desire in all too manv' cases to "take it out" on the farmers. And By F. B. NICHOLS T O V K K A . K N g A I not only that, the marketing O JfJ? been complicated by the tact that retailers ha e been profiteering to a considerable ,xtcnt-.t ou Ion believe this jtSSt make the rounds oi V,,' grocery -and there is considerable contusion tfl the minds t many laborer in the Cities if W tt where the blame should be placed. Ml of these thing:, demand clear thinking and good leadership among the rural people today as never be fore. How can the right returns m tanning be as sured? All that leading producers wish is a lair protll on the investment and fair wages tr the workeis. based on their contributions to society, hair minded men should be willing to allow this, ami certainly farmers are not asking nor expecting any more. Farmers have not. in most cases, obtained any such returns in the past. For many years food was marketed below the COSl of production. This genera tion can well remember and it wasn't long ago when corn was sold for 13 or 15 cents a bushel, and good wheat for 35 cents or less. Obviously a satis factory system of agriculture cannot be built on any such basis. Equally obvious is the fact that if the cities and towns are to make the right progress they must be based on a contented and prosperous farming class. A united effort is necessary. In the past the effort has been largely to reduce the cost of production, and some remarkable results have been obtained along this line. The farmers of the United States have developed their many yields until they are the highest in the world. This has been a happy thing, for fundamentally society has a right to demand the most efficient possible results from the workers in any business or profession. Doubtless more progress will be made along this line, for encouraging results are being obtained in improving machinery, especially for power farming, and in breeding better strains ot plants and animals. For instance, the Kanred wheat, from the Kansas Experiment Station, which yields about five bushels an acre more than other Nineties of hard wheat, is an outstanding examp., t tins On main farms excellent returns are being , tamed in soil fertility work in the use of real crop rotations, which give the soil an opportunity to duce the maximum yields. All these things are ; and they show that the agricultural classes are alive to the mechanics of production; that in a time v workers in other lines of human endeavor are re ducing production they are making the best po effort to increase theirs as needed As a result of this, tanners can take up agricultural economic! with clean hands and in the most iw mental way because they have set their houses in 01 A high production is the ideal of farmers. But this is not all that is required Certainly when men in any business are endeavoring to make it of the greatest value to society they have a right to ask a fair return no more, no less for this effort. The agnail population is today demanding this and producers are going to see to it that they are not the only ones who go down the ladder in reducing prices. This is why char thinking is necessary on economic questions which affect farmers. Where must this leadership come from? The farms, of course. And it must begin and be trained in the country communities, and develop from this into the state and national organizati ons which will lead the agriculture of the future. The de cided growth of co-operation among rural people in the last rive years has been a most happy thing. Not only has it saved vast sums of money to the fan which they had earned and to which they were entitled, but it also has promoted some of the best study oi rural problems which the country has ever Farmers act more nearly as a unit today than ever. Special credit is due to the work of the Grange. Some of the clearest thinking on economic and social pr-.b-lems is being done by members of this order. It has the vision of a big agriculture in the future, with the dignity and proper returns to which it is entitled. Religious Progress in Alaska b thomas b. drayton Seward. Alaska, Dec. 1919. THE Greek Catholic, or Russian Church, as it is called locally, first introduced Christianity into Alaska, confining its labors to the natives. With the overthrow of czardom at the beginning of the present social upheaval its source of support was de stroyed; its priests, with a very few exceptions, abandoned their Mocks and turned to other fields ; and already the church is in process of rapid disintegration; this latter result a logical consummation, an outcome to have been expected, from a spiritual edifice intro duced by violence, propagated by the knout and main tained by intimidation. The Roman Catholic Church established itself in Alaska soon after the United States acquired jurisdic tion over the land and has steadily grown in member ship and influence until today it is estimated that more than jne-fourth of the white citizens subscribe to that faith. The Christian Science faith, but recently intro duced, has a small but growing membership drawn chiefly from the educated class, or certainly from the more' prosperous element, in the various communities in which it has appeared. The remainder of the white population of religious bent, or rather of aggressive religious faith, consti tutes so unique a class among professors of Christian belief that a rather more detailed consideration may be admissible. The distinctive formalism of Christianity, its nomenclatural dress, its rites, its definitions, its distinctions, its developed theology, as taught generally from Prot estant pulpits in the United States thirty years ago or more, never secured a foothold in Alaska. Con viction of sin, repentance, confes sion, conversion, regeneration, and public profession of faith were preached in terms to some extent by Jackson, Kendall, McFarland, and other spiritual pioneers whose names rank high in Alaskan an nals, but, strange as it seems, pro duced only a negligible showing of theological dogma and dootrinal distinction, but a bountiful harvest of spiritual understanding. In Alaska, as everywhere, the thoughtless, the censorious, and the misinformed would charge that the church is merely a social or ganization representing the re spectability, prosperity, benevolence, and largely the intelligence of the community and, what presumably none would deny, the overwhelm ingly predominant influence for good in the community. To those with eyes to see and ears to hear and imagination to believe, it is infinitely more. The rivalries, not to say acerbities, prevalent in iormer years between the various denominations in the States, were never known in Alaska. The terms Bap tist, Presbyterian, Methodist. Congregational, and to an increasing extent Episcopal, are marks of identifica tion of particular organizations of Christian people rather than indications of different systems of religious faith and practice. Indeed, the spirit of unity or spiritual affiliation is such that adherents of the dif ferent denominationally-named churches are constantly received into full church fellowship by the other re ligious organizations merely upon presentation of letters from former church connections. Moreover, it is doubtful if any of these churches would hesitate to administer the ordinance of baptism in any form pre ferred by the conscience of one wishing to unite with it upon profession of faith in Christ. Many of them have, in fact, deviated in this respect from their cus tomary practice ; and in at least one instance it is re ported a confessor was received into full communion by a Christian or Disciples congregation by sprinkling rather than immersion ; a form quite generally regarded as fundamental by adherents of that faith, and cer tainly so by Mr. Campbell, the founder of the sect. The extreme so-called liberalism of the Protestant church in Alaska is due to two dominant causes. When their founders first came to Alaska in such numbers as to make possible any kind of church organization, Bjfc- "g DAWSON, ALASKA- Thit picture give a fair idea of the feeoet in Alaska and the far The city it on the Yukon Kiver on the Caaadian aide of the line that divides the most of them had already subscribed to that recently developed higher criticism which has led to a general clarification and readjustment of scriptural interpreta tion. Coming with these broadened views, the early Alaskan Christians were peculiarly susceptible to the influences and conditions of their new environment. No single community could boast more than a cry few subscribers to any one denominational belief : in deed, the aggregate of all professing Christians in a given community was insufficient to organize and properly maintain a church except by united effort. Under these conditions the association of different creeds in the same church organization became a mat ter of necessity, as also it was largely a matter of choice. By a kind of tacit consent, rather than by any express agreement the various denominational names were apportioned among the churches thus or ganized in different settlements according to the nu merical superiority of their respective adherents. There being rather more Congregational istS at Cordova, .Hat church was designated Congregational; the YaMez church took the name Presbyterian ; the Seward clntrch became the Methodist, and so on ; although all weft and are in a very broad and fine sense comnr iity churches. From the inception of this policy, doctrinal dif ferences have been virtually unknown among the mem bers of these church organizations. Thev have experienced a constant spiritual growth internally an 1 an ever expanding influence for Hid throughout the various COtumUHr ties in which they have devt pad The dropping, or rather the i ms sion, ever to adopt what they dee non-essentials has seemingly emu lated rather than weakened the spiritual essence of these commun ity Christians, and it has most cer tainly simplified and beautified their cult. Living in an age of crass ma terialism, of rarely-equalled intel lectual affrontery and assumption, oi hostile scientific prttenK un abashed by the afternoon topping of its loudly acclaimed theories ot the morning, our community Chris tian moves undisturbed and con template the unfathomable mys teries of life and death and eteinity with the calm and certain o-nvic-tion of one who knows in W lorn he b' lieves, and who can sing in confidence : "My faith looks up to Thee, Thou Lamb of Calvary, Savior divine; Vow hear me while I pray Take all my guilt away, m. may I from this day, Be wholly thine." Nnrthweit in Ceoede. two countries.