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The Ford International Weekly
THE DEARBOM INDEPENDENT Published h THE DEARBORN PUBLISHING CO. Dearborn, Michigan HENRY FORD, President. C. J. FORD. Vice President. E. B. FORD, Secretary Treasmrer E. G. PI PP. Editor. rwenticth Ye&r, Number 12, January 17, 1920. The pr.ee of subseri,t.on in the United States and it5 pJ25 E 15 One Dollar a year; in Canada. One Do liar and Fifty CenttJ and in other countries. Two Dollars. Single Copy. Five Cents. Entered as Second-Class Matter at the Post Office a. Deorb rn, Michigan, under the Act of March 3. is. The Reds and Our Bill of Rights OFFICERS ol the United States Government have made raids in a score of cities, and many hun dreds of nun have been taken into custody. Several hundred have been deported, and it is the plan of the Department of Justice to deport hundreds more. The men affected claim there is an interference with that right of free speech which is guaranteed by the Constitution. Let us see just what the Constitution says on the matter, how it came to be there, and what it means. The Constitution was drawn up by delegates who held meetings and debates for four months, and finally went to the people with their work. The fight for and gainst its adoption was a most bitter one. So divided was public opinion on it that it got through by a very narrow margin. New York State did not vote for it until enough other states had voted favorably to make it law, and Rhode Island did not c.nie in until the other states threatened to cut her off in trade relations. And while the Constitution was adopted, many of the ablest opponents to its adoption were elected to Congress for a purpose. That purpose was to see that certain amendments were soon added to the document. One of the ablest workers on the Constitution itself was James Madison who had much to do with draw ing up the document, and is sometimes called the "l ather of the Constitution." After his labors Madison went back to his home state, Virginia, for the approval of the people. He was bitterly opposed by Patrick Henry and other strong leaders. There were many and varied objections to the docu ment, but one of the principal points on which it was assailed was the fact that it did not contain what its opponents termed a "Bill of Rights" for the people. This issue was raised in practically every state, and in each case its advocates urged the people to adopt the Constitution and amend it afterward. The people showed that they did not intend taking any chances on losing the ami ndments. In Virginia, Madison got the Constitution adopted and wanted to go to the Senate, but while Henry could not muster quite enough votes to defeat the Constitu tion, he was able to defeat Madison for the Senator ship. Madison became a candidate for the House of Representatives and was elected only on promising that he would help see to it that the amendments became a part of the basic law of the land. When in Congress. Ifadison became Speaker of the House. Seventy-seven amendments were proposed. Of these the House acted favorably on 17, which were reduced to 12 by the Senate and all but two were adopted by tin people ; Madison in later years became President. The very first of the amendments in the Hill of Rights for which many honest men fought so bitterly and over which they felt so keenly that they would have defeated the Constitution, had to do with the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the free dom of expression at public assemblages. The first amendment to the Constitution as adopted r ads : "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press: or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the govern ment for the redress of grievances." That amendment was not added to the Constitu ti n merely to put more words into the document, but because the words re,,rese,m-d solid COWiCttaM on part of the great mass of the people, convictions to, M TaTJK as ready to fight as to k needom as a nation. Constitutions and laws IN vita! only l.ei. they rep resent the Me, the will, the aims .1 the people, and that paragraph is hut as vital today as H WM years ago. , ' It means as much now as .hen. and it means what it savs It dOM not say that people can get together and conspire to overthrow this gox eminent. It does give our citizens the right to assemble peace ablv and to petition Congress to right grievances. ,ml if Congress tails in that it gives them the right to gO further and in legal, orderly fashion elect nun to the next Congress who will carry out their will, it the are in the majority. h does not give men of foreign c.tienslnp and ot ideals foreign to our own the right to incite the mases against this Republic. It does recognize that men sometimes betray then trusts, are not true to the hot interests of the people and the nation, and it guarantees the right ot tret don of speech in discussing their acts truthtully and fairly. But that does not mean the right to abolish government. It was the thought of the founders of this go eminent and it is the thought of the people now that we shall have a government of law. order and progress, that protects the rights of all men. with no division of opinion as to those rights being best practiced by a Republican form of government. And so officials have no right to break up a meet ing whose purpose is to strengthen the government in orderly fashion in its present form, but every right to break up any gathering whose purpose is to overthrow this republican form of government whose Constitu tion the great Gladstone of England characterized as 4,the most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man." How About Pork Prices? SENATOR ARTHUR CAPPKR represents a state whOK principal sources of income are beef. pori corn and wheat rad Senator Capper has a com plaint to make. U is that the price of pork to the farmer is too low, that prices have fallen 40 per cent. Hive yOU noticed it in your meat bdl ? There i a tremendous .surplps of pork in the hands of the farmers, but the city people are getl uK 00 tllicf from the pressure of abnormal prices.' ;iVs the Senator, who thinks that the farmer gets too -tie ami the consumer pays too much. What an opportunity for work for Senator C. n and other Senators! "The fault i with the method of distribution." tinues the Senator, "and he who can fad a means of Stopping the many leaks through which the prot of the fanner filter into so many hands before the pe pie finally eat his products, will perform a servn 0f UllinenSC importance to the world. And the Senator observes further: "With gj as much pork in sight for the year just closing, foi ig demand has fallen ff almost entirely, and there i not enough outlet for this meat here at home. The -itua-ttOfl therefore is most critical." As a remedy for this, the Senator would ret down .steamship rates to help the foreign demand and force up pork prices for the farmer. Where would that help the millions of toilers, many of whose families scarcely know the taste of pork, be cause of prohibitive prices: There would be an outlet for it here if prices were uch as the toilers could afford to pay. The farmers are getting no more than they deserve, and & itOf Capper has indicated one good had to work on: Find out what becomes of the difference between what the farmer gets and what the city toiler pays. Eliminate some of the profiteering between, and both will be benefited. Until that is done the people are likely to 1"k on pork as a luxury and deny themselves, eventual!) torc mg prices down in that way to the loss of the farmer. Why the Price Tag Rules Us MANY stories are current which tell of the in sistence with which consumers offer to pay the higher prices which are asked tor goods. A typical story of this sort follows: A shoe dealer took 12 pairs of the same style and quality of shoes, placed six pairs in one window and priced that at $12: placed si pairs in another window and priced them at $7. The $12 shoes sold first. Buyers scorned the others. The story was told, of course, to prove someone's contention that people were bent on spending their money. But the story really proves something else. It proves for one thing that the people are bent on having good quality, and it proves for another that the people have no standard of Quality except the price. If the price is high, there is a chance of the stuff be ing good. If the price is low, it may be shoddy. When our mothers went to the store they didn't look at the price, they looked at the goods. They found out what the goods was before they asked the price. Our mothers knew by the "feel" of cloth what it was made of, and whether it was "a good piece of goods" or not. How much do their daughters kn-w about it? Our fathers entered a shoe shop and asked to see the shoes; they examined them, knew whether they were made of leather, whether they were well sewed, whether material and workmanship were sound -and then they asked the price. How much do their sons know about these things? ' More than that, there has arisen a race of mer chandisers who are just as ignorant of these matters is are their customers. All they know is that the article cost so much and sells for so much. What its relative quality is, how its method of manufacture differs from that of another brand of the same article, wherein it is superior or inferior, are matters as foreign as Sanscrit to the knowledge. Specialists in fabrics, leathers, woods, papers, etc., are almost lacking in the retail trade, whereas the old-time merchant knew his fabrics to a thread and his leathers to a grain. He could guide his customers. In these days a shopping crowd re sembles a crowd of blind folks being led by blind folks. It would be an excellent innovation if Buying, in stead of mere ordering and paying, could be taught the rising generation. If we could get the means of de tecting quality into the hands of the people., if we could teach people how to know the texture of the true article from the texture of the shoddy substitute. Tt is pathetic that the purchasing public should have to guess from price tags as to whether the goods are right or not, instead of being able to tell by the goods themselves whether the prices arc right or not. Patrick Henr. the great orator of Constitu tional times, was delivering a speech again-' tin adoption of the Constitution. He opened hi- .rai ment with the statement that the conduct of th 'UK gates who drew up the document at Philadelphia should he investigated. Referring to (ieorge Washington, M said: "Kven of that illustrious man who saved us by his valor. I would have reason for his conduct Even the great service rendered the public by Washington did not save him from inclinations on the part of those who opposed the Constitution, just as President Wilson in this day has not been spar ! de spite the great service he has rendered in helping to win a victory in war and to insure a lasting pes Woman has, among her advantages, that of - Ming her husband if he comes in late, or saying, "Fbl good ness sake, what brought you home at this tin e," ii he comes in early. Kducator.s receive eighteen cents an horn and bricklayers receive one dollar, yet had it not b n for the educators there would be no work for the brick layers. We always believe the spinster who say- & m single from choice until we see the adoring look she gives a baby. A woman putting a baby to sleep is ten tim Nttf onset than a woman putting an audience to ifa It seems like asking too much of Provid ice to temper the wind to the stockingless fad. To let an enemy know that you are awan f nl deceit i arming him against you. CopernsCttl was the first sober man to disco vet that the earth revolved. Any man can put up a bluff but it takes a genius not to fall over it. Love always suffered more from indigestion than from starvation. 1-very happy face we meet adds one more sunbeam to our lives. lasting of his strength is one of man V Weaknesses.