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4 Ftfry Powerful Official By AARON HARDY VIM ASOFT-M WNERFD. gentle-voiced Southerner. - , ith Caroliniai oi Southerners, visited a new-h- ristii Western community m the days when Civil Wai tcrans dominated m every neighborhood. The local agent of the investment concern He repre sented met the visitor and made ready to take him around and introduce him to leading citizens. let me uarn vou." advised the agent in a halt whisper "to be Very careful about what you say con cerning the South and the war. You know this com munity is peopled by rebels who came West when the war ended." . . I was a young man then." ays the Southerner thus spoken to, -and had strong sentiments about the war and its iues. and they were quite opposite to those the agent, who thought 1 was a Northern man. SUS netted But I didnt correct him and tollowed his counsel which in later lite has been ot much value to me for the incident brought home to me the im portance of being, before all else, an American. He is Daniel C. Koper, United Mates Commis sioner of Internal Revenue and as such the potentially St powerful official in the Federal Government The "C stands for Calhoun, and, though he hasn t lived there for a long time he looks upon the small town t t- ii e..u fm. wttmt qc "Vi.me ana is re- ot Mcian. aouui ""' t , . viarded bv the people there as one of them, just a much as if he sauntered through its picturesque streets every day. He is proud of his state's and sections traditions and lends an enthusiastic hand toward sus taining and exalting them. But those who deal with him politically and officially never think of him a a South Carolinian or Southerner and unless they made inquiry they would never know or suspect the tact. The incident in the mining town has caused him to veritably lean backward in iteering dear of in vidious sectionalism. Even when his children finished the common schools, he sent them to colleges in dif ferent sections of the country. i wanted my family circle to include knowledge of and pride in every section of the country," says he. So nw if anyone at tin- breakfast table utters a criticism oi the West or the Middle West or the hast there usually is another with facts and enthusiasm, based on experience and acquaintances, to meet it. IF COMMISSIONER KOPEK were oi another type, the type often if not generally encountered in politi cal offices of high significance, critics gunning for him, or tli. administration he serves. or the government, would fire at him the word "Fouche." Though the vast power he wields or in certain eventualities might wield, would urive some warrant for it, such a shot would flv far afield from Koper. In fact, he is one high government official that this writer, who is in fairly close touch with national affairs, has never heard criticized, though the place he fills touches the super tender sides, that is to say the money and the bust ness and to some extent the personal conduct sides, of millions of Americans. It is he or his subordinates who must decide whether that income tax blank you will soon till out again, provided you earned more than $2,000 last year, states the full and exact truth about how much money you make and, largely, what you do with it. He or his assistants can come into your place of business and go over your books to find whether you tell the truth about its financial operations. He musl to it that the girl at the window takes toll in pennies from you every time you go to the movies, 1 also must see that those pennies reach the Treas ure. Every purchase or sale of a narcotic drug comes in detail within his surveillance. Likewise does every operation in oleomargerine or adulterated butter or mixed flour and in various other things. And now, if you undertake to make a little home brew, it is up to Koper, or his vast semi-secret service force, to get you. provided tin fermentation yields more than one-half of one per cent of alcohol. There il scarcely a person in all the country who doesn't daily come "directly or indirectly in touch with the operations of the United States Internal Revenue Servio its name would imply that it is a mere tax gathering organization. That is its prime function; a function that brought into Uncle Sam's till more than five billions of dollars last year. Yet much of the bureau's work has next to nothing, or wholly nothing, to do with money raising; it comprises functions that are of the policing type as much as are those of the Treasury or the Department of Justice secret service forces. And the money raising involves the exercise of far-reaching police powers. In truth, the Department of Justice secret service for running down "Reds" or trust magnates, and the I reasury secret service for running down counter feiters, are mere squads, when viewed as to magni tude and variety of operations, when compared with the corps of investigators under the Bureau of In ternal Revenue. That corps collects and collates information that conveys the inner secrets of the entire business life of America. Correct and complete information was one, if not the greatest, secret of Napoleon's success. It is the essence of power But the files of Fouche, Napoleon's it and feared police minister, never contained as much and as complete information about Frenchmen and French affairs as those of the revenue bureau con tain about Americans and American affairs. ft you happen to be I drug fiend, the fact is noted in thoV l I, which show how much, and how you procure, narcotic four system craves. If you pay an incom then i I record there perhaps of the re pairs rot made OH VOW home last year, as well as the If vou are in mount and sources be a record business o conseouence there is c mu.h there of hot SoTtton 3.WO.O0O per- which the bureau iJfSnSei power the bureau (ets and keeps a record in minute detail. Most of th -nation IS made secret by tow, ana i the whole, -.liable alone to (missmner of Internal Revet the Secretary of he ua o For disclosing or misusing an) of that rated conn dential, heavy penalties are provided. It was probably because of the immense power, po tential if not actual, accruing to the revenue bureau, as well as the immense responsibilities oi the ottice as reorganized following our entry mtO the war. that caused President Wilson to -wish the commissioner ship on Daniel C. Koper. Prior to 1918 it was largely a routine office that tilled a half doen rooms in the old treasury Building and looked after distributing revenue stamps and dis couraging blockade whisky operations. It collected a few hundred millions a year under the direction ot a chief who commonly was a "deserving type of party politician. The war and the consequent necessity for raising billions from internal revenues brought about a vast reorganization of the bureau. The working force was increased from 3,000 to 15,000. The few office room grew into fifty or sixty. The new Treasury Annex Building was taken over wholly by the income tax di vision of the bureau, and several other buildups are tilled by various divisions. Yet only a modicum, SO to speak, of the bureau's operations are in Washington. More than 12,000 mem bers of the force are in the field service that is scat tered over the country. There are sixty-four collec tion districts, each with a bin force. Through those district organizations most of the internal revenues are gathered. They report to Washington, where final executive power lies. Hut between them and Wash ington arc intermediary or general supervisory forces, known generally as revenue agents. While members of the internal revenue corps don't move around fur tively like secret service operatives, they are organ ized somewhat after the plan of Fotftche's great police system. There are several layers, each checking on the other. That method governs the new force organized to enforce national prohibition. In each state there is a directing official, but above him is another sub-director who has a "flying squadron" for use in a zone including several states. There are twelve such tones. Then under the Commissioner in Washington there is a chief director of the force, as of other internal rev enue forces. The prohibition force has virtually nothing to do with raising revenues; its function is almost wholly that of policing. Commissioner Roper wasn't in favor of prohibi tion enforcement being imposed on his bureau, giving in his opposition a rare display of an official objecting to his powers being increased. But "General" Koper, as he is known to his friends, has no love of power for power's sake, and that is per haps an additional reason why President Wilson in sisted that he take hold of the revenue bureau. The Commissioner is one of the few Inderal of ficials of distinction who rose from that helpless and usually hopeless position known commonly by the term "government employe." He was for many years in the civil service, the most nearly certain burying ground for talent in the country. His first American ancestor was one of the original settlers at Jamestown and his people have long been prominent in the social and political life of the South. He was elected to the South Carolina legislature when just old enough to vote. During the closing days of DANIEL C. ROPER (C) Harris a Ewlng the Cleveland administration he was clerk of a l imed States Senate Committee. . In 1900 he became .t statistical clerk in the I :;ited states Censu Bureau. He knew much about ( tton and was assigned to that branch ot the work. When a Senator or Congressman wanted figures or other -lata about the South's great crop, they found that Roper was the man who could always supply it. I hough he didn't belong to the party that ruled administrative Washington, he rose in the bureau until he became us chief expert on cotton. He organized the present sys tem of getting statistics of cotton production. li.i nig developed the ginnery reports, perhaps the mt valu able ot all sources of data bearing on the annual cot ton harvest. Then he became the textiles expert ot the Ways and Means Committee of the House of Representative and when the Democrats took over the House he Wi made clerk of that committee He worked out the intricate details involved BS developing the Underwood SimmofU TaritT Act. which now prevails. Then he became First Assistant Postmasti I ben eral and because of the talent for organization dis played in that place, he was asked, in I'M'., to I sign and direct the organization bureau of national 1 cratic headquarters in the campaign that resulted in the second election of President Wilson. That u is the most important of headquarters' bureaus and prior tc 1916 had always been conducted by i man prominent in campaigning politics, Hut. though he is not oi that type, Roper taught the elder politicians many : hmgs about political organization. The campaign over, he w.is put on the new'- cre ated Tariff Board, a quiet, non-contentious pla that could have been his tor life. Hut in a few months the war came and with B necessity for organizing the internal revenue bur I for the collection of billions, involving the gathei 0 manifold information of great importance concerning individuals and businesses. The place paid J 1 year; the TaritT Board jb. $7,500. Hut, on 1': lent Wilson's request, Koper took it. and after a y Con gress raised his salary to $10,000. When the politicians of the old-tune, ambr he-boss .school think of the "opportunities" a ' (l-'(' by the Internal Revenue Hureau, as lately en irged, for developing personal and political power, the: taces redden with envy. Hut under "General" Koper the precincts I the bureau, its files, its vast powers of supervision, in quiry and decision are treated as things sacred. Alaska's Gold, Silver, Copper, Platinum, Tin and Oil EXCEPT on the railroad the transportation condi tions in Alaska were worse in 1919 than in any previous year, and this has tended to discourage those who were planning new ventures. Approximate value of Alaska's mineral products in t919. Gold $ 9,000.000 Copper .... 8.500,000 Silver 650,000 Coal 350,000 Lead 100,000 Tin 50,000 Platinum, palladium, quicksilver, petroleum, marble and gypsum 200.000 Total $18,850,000 During 39 years of mining Alaska has produced gold to the value of $3 1 1 .000.000. of which $218,000,000 is to be credited to placer mines Eighteen gold-lode mines, operating in Alaska in 1919, produced gold worth $4,100,000. Twenty-five mines in 1918 produced gold worth $3,473,000. The increase in 1919 came from three mines at Juneau. Eight copper mines were operated in 1919, Pr0' ducing about 44,800.000 pounds of copper, val ued at $8,500,000. Th, output in 1918 was 69,225,000 ,lds' valued at $17,099,000, and came from 17 mines to the fall in the price of copper and the uncertainty ot the market, the larger mines decreased then Otttf and many of the small ones were closed. The silver output of Alaska in 1919 was about 590. 000 ounces, of which some S00,000 ounces was recoverec from copper ores, Alaska's lead output of 1919 K mated to be 800 tons, practically all a by product ot the gold lode mines Preliminary estimates indicate that about 40 tons of metallic tin was produced in Alaska during 1 '1V; all from placers, but important developments wen continued on lode mines. . Some platinum was recovered in the mining.0 placer gold, and the mining of certain copper (.re wn carries palladium and platinum was continued. int petroleum produced in Alaska in 1919, as in prevlOJM years, came from the only patented oil land ot tnc territory, fa the Katalla field. The output was J" Cki ' ,aml dri,,mi continued In view oi the prov able early enactment of an oil-land leasing 1 ,, mteresj t m the Alaska petroleum fields has revived, snfl after this law has been enacted there will undoubtedly be somcthmg like an oil boom.