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12 Vandalism Threatens Prehistoric Ruins WILL not something be d0O to stop the whole sale andalism ioing on among the priceless relics of prehistoric races in the Southwest: American capital and American scientitic thought are given to exploring the ruini ot ancient Meso potamian ami Nile country cities, and to uncovering architecture of peoples of Kong ago along the north ern coast of Africa, while very few Americans know that luperb antiquities of a marvelous and unknown race exist in abundance among the lonely mountains and canyons of our own Southwest. Not only tins, hut Americans are 10 carele. s of these remains Oi an unknown pre-Columbian people, that practically no attempt is made toward their preservation and ever) year reckless mercenary vandals destroy, for scientific research, the remains consisting of magnif icent fortress 0f Stone built .0t0 and 4.000 years ago on the cliffs of northern Arizona and southwest ern Colorado by probably the earliest race to tread the soil of America. Nothing in Europe or Asia Minor is so interesting and valuable to archaeologists as these remains ot a powerful race of which there i little known, and winch vanished long before Columbus sailed mto the West. Xo European country would be so heedless of her archaeological treasures. Even Egypt (kbt" ridden and decrepit, guards her buried cities ami pre historic remams jealously, while Italy has an army to protect her Roman relics ami punish even tiny thefts at her Pompeii a mere chronological youth it compared with the age of the aboriginal relics in our Southwestern territories. There are, throughout the Southwest, an aggregation of primitive prehistoric relics as profoundly interesting as any in the Old World. And scarcely one American in twenty knows anything about them. A hundred years ago we might have pointed with warrantable pride to a marvelous collection of mounds and earthworks, to our vast buriiHl cities, our pic tured and inscribed rocks, our rums and our sky- hung clot dwellings- all telling a deeply fascinating tale of a race of people whj eons ago struggled for existence and happiness as keenly, if not as feverish ly, as we do today. But, alas! this generation re gretfully recognizes that our Middle West mounds and earthworks are but a miserable remnant, a mere handful, of the once thousands of varying examples of the constructive skill of the race which so pictur esquely decorated nearly half the area of this broad land. The engineering feats of American aborigines, which are s(, fast disappearing, were apparently the outgrowth of two motives. One seemed to he purely ceremonial and quite in accord with certain religious dictates, which demanded the erection of vast flat topped pyramids and mounds, or marvelous earth bas-reliefs in the shape of animals, birds and ser pents; the other the outcome of the sad need of all human creatures for a last resting place, made mani fest by a preference for tenderly laying away their dead in huge earthen sarcophagi, raised far above the surrounding plain. They also deposited with their dead the accoutrements and domestic paraphernalia used by the individual in life. While numbers of fine collections have been ex cavated and brought together, through the instru mental it) of scientific students of archaeology, it is a sad fact that by far the greater portion have been wantonly sacrificed by untrained persons, who, with unrestrained enthusiasm or with mercenary motives, have unearthed splendid collections and passed over many of the closely connected and vital problems, as those of construction, distribution and association. Only in rare instances has there been displayed an appreciation by a few public spirited men of the crying need of careful, scientific investigation and the rescue of type examples of these prehistoric works for perpetuation from the ravages of collectors. The prehistoric mounds and caves have been de stroyed and what remain should be preserved by legislation; but the destruction of magnificent memor ials of very ancient ruins historic legacies, as they are in the Southwest may be checked ere it is too late. In that vast arid region designated as the Great American Desert, covering, as it does, almost the entire limits of Arizona and New Mexico and smaller portions of Nevada, Utah and Colorado, are to be found thousands of examples of handiwork of prim itive communal peoples. Cliff houses are found there, cavate lodges, ruins on the narrow tillable levels of deep and dark can yons, extensive buried cities, sometimes entirely covered and again only partially hidden by the drift ing alkali lands which mercilessly hurl over the lonesome wastes. There are several examples, too, of Stupendous and massive temples, which have proud ly held their own in desolation and solitude for cen turies, every type ot work telling a sad and pathetic tale of a race which, in the struggle for existence, was combating the most Sinister and arid environment of the world. All these invaluable possessions are fast disap pearing, simply for lack of prmer legislation to pro tect them. Dr. J. Walker Fcwkes, of the Smith sonian Institution, one of the best authorities on .Southwestern archaeology, has deep-rooted convic ts -Ps on the subject and the need for immediate and prompt action, and has interestingly related the pres ent status of tin- situation. For a dozen ears the Southwest has become a touring point annually for thousands of visitors, at tracted thither by the marvelous and eccentric forms of nature, the climate, the impressive structures of the Pueblos, the curious and still almost primitive life of their inhabitants, ami. lastly, the remarkable cliff dwellings of the Canyons and the massive temples of the plains. The -e !-nrs have created a tremendous in America By HENRY G. TINSLEV demand for the art products of the ancient free holders, i In consequence a new industry has sprung up. ana every town vaunts its curio and brie a Dl ac shop, where a conglomeration of minerals, rare and other wise, modern Indian paraphernalia made to order, brand new basketry and pottery, and often scores and scores of tine examples of art from the site Ol ancient buried cities Of from the former nest like homrs of the cliff neoplcs. are to be found, hven i i the solitary trader at the water tank nas oecomc afflicted with the bric-a-brac epidemic and peddles Ins prehistoric wares through the halted train, to the edification of the passengers and usually to the pro prietor's financial satisfaction. The discovery of the commercial value of such specimens has given rise to keen competition among the trailers over this entire region, and the fact that Several large collections have sold for fancy sums has so stimulated their cupidity that mercenary col lectors have entirely outstripped scientitic men m the search for and the acquisition of these articles, and have committed most pernicious acts of vandalism. The finest ami oldest of all ruins in the Union if not in all the world has been shamefully muti lated during the past year. We refer to Montezuma's Castle a majestic, communal habitation that stands 200 feet up the precipitous cliffs of Beaver Crick (a branch of the Verde River) in Yavapai County, in northern Arizona. Prof. Samuel Wren, of Cam bridge University, England, twenty years ago pro nounced it the most marvelous prehistoric dwelling in the civilized world worth going even farther to see than the ruins in Rhenish Bavaria. Montezuma's Castle never had anything to do with the great Aztec Montezuma, hut it has undoubtedly stood perched Upon its limestone cliff three or four thousand years. Ages ago a multitude of human martins carried up the cliffs on their backs, every stone, every hit of mortar used in the ponderous edifice, and the engineering and architectural skill these laborers dis played stamps these extraordinary people and their work as mysterious and imposing as anything in Egypt and Asia. Montezuma's Castle comprises live stories of hewn stone, cemented together in walls four feet thick. In height, the castle is fifty-two feet. It is crescent shaped and is seventy-five feet long. It contains thirty-one rooms. Everywhere within are indications of the mode of living of the unknown race. who dwelt there before Rome ruled the world. Such an impressive ruin would be guarded with jealous care were it in European countries, and thousands of Americans would cross land and sea to view it. But this nation has allowed it to be whacked to pieces by relic hunters so that it is fast falling to destruction. Every year sees a falling of some of its walls, in the eft.-rts of mercenary explorers to exhume mum mies, and to get articles of dress, jewelry, and burial vases of prehistoric days. One of the princi pal rooms in the great pile was completely ruined last year by blasting open supposed burial vaults, in the hope of getting relics for exhibition at the Pan American Exposition, and during the past few months a great wall, which undisturbed would have endured a thousand years longer, fell with a crash in the canyon below because of under-mining by reckless curio seekers. The abominable, work of destroying the cliff dwellings in southern Utah is now well nigh Complete. Dr. James B. Weller. of Chicago University, says that he was shocked, upon recently visiting Utah cliff dwellings, to observe the wholesale havoc that has been made there since he explored in that region eleven years ago. What used to be superb remains for scientific study, and what he believed to he the most I nut nil held for ascertaining many facta cerning the life, habits, degree of civilization aspirations of a race, who dwelt there fully years ago. an- now irreparahlv destroyed for factory investigation. From the Utah el iff iuii seven tons of most valuable relics were taken for exhibition purposes at the World's Fair 1 t rr r . were auerwaru auciioneu on tor curios Chicago shop. Tombs of aboriginal kings and aueeni were blown open, and dynamite hurled asunder council chambers and tribal castles that had been built with infinite patience and surpassing skill on the ledges of towering cliffs. Such wanton destruc tion of priceless relics would be viewed with horror in any European country. The Petrified Forest the largest and most mar velous of its kind in all the world -in northeastern Arizona has been woefully hacked to pieces and cart ed away wholesale, by vandal hands. In the fall of 1899, this wonderland was put under a quasi pro tectiotl of the Land Office of the Interior Depart ment hut it has not availed much, and it was fat tOO late t0 MVe the n. hirst Specimens of the giant trees vhi h grew eofll and eottS ago. Tons of petri fied wood are still carted away from the government lands ( very month and during the past summer, five of the finest specimens of standing trees have disap peared by piecemeal in one and two foot sections. But this is nothing to the manner of the destruction of the forest from the time the Santa Pf railroad built through the region of the Petrified Forest, in 1885, until two years ago. A Company of ( olorado con- and 4,000 satis- litiLis. away and in a nun engaged in the work of Rathenng carl.. ad l0t8 0 sections of the lOSSlled trees ami in polishim slabs sawed from them. The petrifactions Jj hard as flint nd ls beautifully colored as . ate or oiiw. and there air mantels, hotel bars, pari tables and even wainscoting in the Middle West , if unfathomable af W the the priceless relic Petrified Forest Most wanton despoliation of the remains of the great unknown races which occupied the sai plains of southern and central Arizona, long l e birth of Christ itill goei on in the Sa kiver Valley in the vicinity of IMioenix and M a City, lens of thousands of people dwelt in cih where there are now lonely wastes and cattle rai 0 one knows how long ago they built the now ruined temples of adobe clay, the enormous city a illi and the strangely constructed irrigation canals - nm hither and yon among the foothills and a sS tle plains. There is scarcely a bit ot evidene as to who these industrious, provident and skilful aborig ines were, where they came from or how fthn they disappeared from the face of the glol There are few more battling facts in arclmeolog) ! eth nology than those concerning the wonderful i . that dwelt in southern ami central Arizona. "These people left crude implements of o nc and bone, jewelry of shells, cooking utensils oi stone, and remains everywhere of habitations. The nation has done absolutely nothing to protect thesi relics, which would be beyond value in any European country. Hundreds of men and boys dig and plow at will among the mighty pre-C 'olumbian cities, tear down walls, exhume implements, open graves and cany away wagon loads of relics for sellmu the same to dealers in curios and Indian artifacts. The curio Stores in all California ami Southwestern towns, where tourists come, contain quantities of relics of the unknown ancient people, who were highly civilised for their age. I hi se relics left Undisturbed and to gether, and studied by competent scientists, would solve one of the most mystifying and interesting problems American archaeologists and ethnologist! may have to grapple. During the past year seven nu n have been at w ork in digging literally a carload of priceless relics, and at the same time destroying prehistoric boundary lines at Los Muertos, in Mari copa County, while the national authorities have looked idly on. Dr. Fewkes and Prof. Hodge, of the Smithsonian Institution, are of the opinion that unless sme check is made Upon the vandalism of our prehistoric remains in the Southwest, there will be none worth protecting in a few years more. But there is a question as to what is the most expedient method of bringing about a cessation of the rapid destruc tion of these memorials. Two suggestions may be be offered. One is that public benefactors, through proper scientitic societies, with adequate endowments, take the matter in hand; the other course -1 v iild be to protect, by popular interests, a few well chosen types representing the various phases of ab ritfina! engineering and architectural skill. The United States is the only civilize-1 country in the world that has not stringent laws in regard to the exportation of antiquities. One or two of the best collections from the ruins of ancie: mound builders have been sold t foreign museum . that it is now necessary for a student who wishes to examine antiquities of his own country I fO & Europe. Mexico has for years set us a shinittj example, which we have disregarded, in I 'aWS which not only regulate the exportation of relies logical material, but prevent tin- wholesale d -ruction "t antiquities by commercially imbued spirits To-day there is nothing to prevent an ne M this country from tearing down a ruin. 'hering together the ancient objects which are four. herein, and selling them to the highest bidder. The Only Man Who Was i ver Senator from Three States ONLY one man thus far has been SUfBcici versa tile to le elected to the United States S e from three different states. The in. ni who made this unique politic record was James Shields, who was born in Countv Tyrone, reland, in 1810, He was Senator from ni'n0,s' Minnesota and Missouri. Emigrating to this country at an ear!, age, he took up the study of law and located at K.ak,a. Illinois. M looner had he become a full-flw citizen oi that state than he proceeded to lu p himseW to every office that was not nailed down. He aS successively a member ol the legislature, state auditor, supreme court judge? general land office com:n-iner-and a soldier in the Mexican war. being breveted Major General. !! wound up his career in IHin0,s with the Senator ship. Taking a liking to Minnesota, he moved up there and made himself io popular that he was SO H lia,lde the senatorship from that state. He was next lured to California, but the breaking 001 of the war betwren the states presented lulll Ir acquiring anything politically. He enlisted tn. 1 n""i irmy from that state, and at the ,se hostilities located in Missouri. His first office JJ Wtl Adjutant General. At the first opportunity n look over 'he Senatoratiip, . is Had he not been horn in a foreign country 0 ,mt(' Probable that this genial man would have gn tf the presidency of the United States. He died at Ottumwa, Iowa, in 1879.