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Freedom for Lord French's Assassins Dublin, refold, Jan.. 1920. IRELAND is now recovering from the shock which it received when it became known that Viscount French, Viceroy of Ireland, had narrowly escaped isassination. This crime has had no parallel since the enix Park murders of May 6, 1882, when Lord Frederick Cavendish, the chief secretary, and Mr. Burke, under-secretary, were ilain on Saturday after noon in broad daylight in light of the Viceregal Lodge, i ord Spencer, who was then viceroy, was actually a Spectator from one of the windows of the lodge. On this occasion Lord French was more fortunate. He es aped absolutely unscathed from a situation which, were it not for one fault in the carrying out of the well laid plan, must inevitably have proved fatal to him. The scheme was in itself perfect. Lord French, with a imall party and escort, was returning from the County Roscommon where he had been spending a few days. He was to leave the train at the small wayside station of Ashtown and drive over to the Viceregal Lodge m the Phoenix Park not more than a mile and a halt distant. Three motor cars were at the station to meet him. On their way back they had to pass through a narrow road leading from the station to the park entrance. This narrow road is crossed by the main road leading from Dublin to Xavan. and at the cross ing there is a public house on ere corner and on the Other is the Phoenix Park race-course, surrounded by high walls. The assailants arrived at the public house on bicycles. They went around and prepared their plans with extraordinary audacity. Inside the hedge behind the public house they scattered hay and prepared the ground from which they intended to make their at tack. An ivy-covered tree had some branches cut off and against this they placed a ladder from which they had a view of the railway station and could see the train arriving. The men had some drinks in the public house and were apparently summoned unexpectedly by the man on guard, for their drinks remained unfinished. Apparently it was intended that an empty farm By HUGH CUR RAN Carl irai to be placed across the road m order tO the viceregal procession and give the assailants oppor ntv or'thelr deadly assault , At the crucial moment a policeman constable. McLau,hhn: came on di at his point, apparently by officia 'ructions. V1CW of the Lord Lieutenant's arrival. Nunc ot the nun intimated to him that if he valued In, life ht WOuJd elear off. He did not do SO and immediately he WM knocked dow n, and a pistol shot was fired at him. RW bullet struck his belt and glanced harmlessly to the ground, another shot in the leg put the constable out Ol action. The farm cart was hurriedly pulled acrotl the road but in the hurry it was left in such position that there was still adequate room for an automobile to pass. ord French's chauffeur saw his chance, and at high ipeed, dashed through under a shower of bullets and hand grenades from the attackers. There were three cars in the viceregal party. The first contained Lord French and a lady friend and a detective, Sergt Halley, w ho sat with the chauffeur. The second car was empty and the third contained a party of soldiers composing the escort. Sergt. Halley at once rircd his revolver rapidly in the direction of the party and had his re volver shot out of his hand, two tinkers being injured. He picked up the revolver and tired again with his left hand. Lord French was the essence of coolness. He Stood up in the car to get a better view and hred his revolver repeatedly. The second car, in which the at tackers believed Lord French to be, was subjected to a tierce hail of bullets and grenades, but while it was much damaged, no other harm was done. The escort in the third car started tiring at rapid rate and it was to one of their bullets that a man named Martin Sav age fell with a terrible wound in his head. When the military car drew closer, the attackers showed signs of wavering, and after trying to remove their dead com rade, which they lound impossible, they mounted their bicycles and rode off toward the city. The lol s pUr. sued for some distance but their ammunition became exhausted, and they gave up the chase, wl h they reckoned to be useless as well as dangerous. Had it not been for the failure effectively , barri cade the road, the whole viceregal party wo ! My have perished. As it was. w ith the ev ,on Qf the detective who was slightly wounded and the po liceman on duty, the whole party escaped. This terrible affair has made a most proL, .mi jm presskm throughout the entire country. It is neces Itn t say that generally speaking there is , syrn. pithy with murder, yet at the same time it ca not be denied that there are in the country a considerable number of desperate men who are prepared resort to the most extreme measures. These men a ear to have banded themselves together with this bject in view, ami the fact that they enjoy the most complete immunity from arrest and prosecution shows that they exercise a certain terrorism which prevei I those whose evidence might lead to conviction from speak ing out. There is no doubt that this unfortunate and most regrettable occurrence is the direct outcome of the chaotic political situation which at present exists or(j French is not personally unpopular, but as tin i.ead of a government which has played and is playing fast and loose with Ireland's aspirations he has to 'Mulder all the Opprobrium which is not and never should be attributable to him personally. He is the instrument of the government at Westminster. It is unf rtunate for him personally that during his viceroyalty the agita tion for Irish settlement has developed into a demand tor complete separation from Kngland, a demand which it is impossible for him to grant. And it i link satisfaction to him to know that if years ao ti e mod erate claims of the constitutional Nationalists had been granted, the cruel impasse which now exists would nev er have come about. A Paris Specialist in Bolshevism By paul tyner ran. France, January. 19JU. DR. GUST AVE LE BOX. an eminent French scientist who for many years has specialized in the study of "the psychology of the crowd." recently gave me a diagnosis of Bolshevism, which he insists on reardinu as a mental malady. The old medical maxim, "Correct diagnosis is half the cure," should lend special interest to this point of view. A- he rose to greet me when I was shown into hil study, the doctor presented a striking picture of the traditional savant. At tirst. in the dim light, I noticed only his big reddish-brown beard falling oyer a gr.y woolen robe, and then eyes twinkling with good humor above a prominent nose with the curve' that denotes mastery. After he had welcomed me with an easy gesture to a chair and stated himself opposite me. the light from a pointed arch window above him brought out a grey head surmounted by a monastic skull cap and the vital tint of his dark ruddy complexion. He might in this light have sat as a model for Dr. Faust, or for Rembrandt's phil opher. One might find his prototype among the savants whom Jean Paul Laurens loved to paint in a setting of dark oak-paiu led walls and heavy carved furniture. "The rapid spread of Bolshevism in Russia, its propagation in Hungary, in Germany, and even among ourselves here in France, astonishes you?" he quer ied with the pitying smile that a child's naivete might call forth. "It i. however, only a well known phenomenon of collective mental aberration, of epi demic insanity, of mast-suggestion. Reasoning or reflection does not enter into Bolshevism any more than it does into the bubonic plague or Asiatic cholera. If Bolshevism were, as its apostles pretend, a serious social and economic doctrine, it would not have succeeded with the mob. It is a religion, a faith and a blind faith at that. That is what gives it its strength." On my remarking that this view seemed a bit paradoxical, and asking him if he saw no deeper n ason for Bolshevism's expansion. I )r. Le Bon threw up his hands in a characteristically Gallic gesture. "Why must you have other reasons? Bolshevism comes from the Orient like all other mystical doc trines, and it has its apostles. There you have the essential : the apostles. These it certainly does not lack. But all the same, it has a lack. Among us, the intellectual and reasoning people have been puzzled to account for it. If Minerva, on the other hand, had had place in her worship for apostles, who knows she would perhaps not have succumbed. "And the remedy? I do not see any. In a healthy body a disease causes only curable ravages. If closely watched, relapses of the disorder may be prevented. On the hom .pathetic plan, I would say that we" should bring apostles to oppose apostles, propaganda to counteract propaganda; and above all. we should unite ourselves to resist Bolshevism's further advance. Do we know how to maintain such a union of inferior people --by- inferior I mean the ignorant, those inferior in thinking power and instruction? They know. They form themselves into solid phalanxes or blocks to accomplish the purposes to which their emotion stirs them. What have reflection and study, independence of mind and diversity of opinion to say? How about legislative and other governmental measures I asked. "Us k II ' was the instant response of the sage. "The Romans say: quid leges sine moribus9 What can laws do without the sanction and force of custom and usage? Minds must be trained. I am preparing a book on The New Spirit. In it, I have fully noted my observations. Take a walk down the street any day. Watch the conductor of the street car or the motor-bus, the newspaper vender, the grocer's boy on his delivery tricycle. Xote word and gesture all denote a new spirit." "How will it all end? Will the crisis culminate peacefully ?" "Read' the 'Ancient Democracies' of Croiset. Four hundred years before Christ. Athens knew the same anxieties that the whole world is experiencing today. That ancient democracy was not able to resist them and its civilization succumbed. Study Lu chaire's 'Italian Republics of the Middle Ages.' Florence and Vienna passed through similar tests; they were several times destroyed. When anarchy develops freely, it accomplishes all the destruction of which it is capable. In the midst of ruin, it again seizes power." "You are hardly reassuring; yet you speak of all this very calmly?" "Do not deceive yourself! I do not cease to re peat that we must be vigilant, to have the will and to be united. But what can I do?w And his long arms dropped on the grey robe with an expression of utter discouragement. Like all wise doctors, Dr. Le Bon would let nature heal. That is the last word of their wisdom. After all, nature is never far wrong. We shall see how the wise universal mother takes care of the present chills and fever in the body politic. It will be noted that the good doctor identifies Bolshevism and anarchism. This, indeed, is a very general assumption. The testimony of Colonel Ray mond Robbins before a Congressional Investigating Committee and his magazine articles, as well as the evidence of Arthur Ransome, the English journalist, would go to show, however, that the assumption may be a gratuitous one. They tell of bitter struggle! in Letrograd and Moscow between the anarch. stl and the official representatives of Bolshevism, the People's Commissaries. Insofar as the Bolshevist movement is inspired or dominated by anarchistic theories or motives. l)r. Le Bon is undoubtedly correct in diagnosing it as a mental malady. May I be permitted to recall that in this connection I delivered before the Medico Legal Society in New York, soon after Mckinley's assassination, an address on "Anarchism and Ata vism." In this address, which attracted some at tention among both alienists and sociol 'gists, I endeavored to show that all insanity is, in a large sense, a reversion to primitive traits. In the worst cases, such reversion is apt to be marked by a re surgence of the destructive instincts of the -avage and the brute, with more or less complete .trophy of the constructive and conserving tcndci de veloped in the age-long upward struggle ii d the beast to civilized man. The fury of the lynching mob, I pointed out, was only a collective . nB of such atavism, an intensification of the ( tional storms generated among both negroes and tes at "revival meetings'1 of a certain order, and ev in big national conventions when the crowd is ca ed off its feet by a wave of enthusiastic feeling I cast ing reason to the four winds, abandons it- to frenzy of howling and hat-waving for forty r fifty minutes at a stretch. The ideal remedy for anarchism, as I other forms of atavism, I suggested, would be fou I to lie in the same direction in which mental tin :' ha won its most marked successes; that is, in pi nq the individual anarchists under sane, norma! kindly human influences, especially in quiet villa. com munities, where they would be naturally led t ngage in honest industries in workshops, farms and trdens. Such settlements for the insane have prove partic ularly successful in Belgium. Lifting South Carolina Out of the Mud TWO years ago the General Assembly of South Carolina started to lift the Palmetto State out of the mud. and wonders along that line ha"e been ac complished. But the half has not been told nor done, according to Governor R. A. Cooper, who urges the legislature which began its midwinter sessions a few days ago to complete the program of crisscrossing South Carolina with a chain of hard-surface and modern highways that will make the commonwealth the best paved of any state in the Union. It may be of interest here to say that already many of the more progressive counties of South Carolina have modern highway systems; that would amaze those who have not been in these counties for a period of two years. For instance, Anderson County is now building a county system of roads costing more than $2,000,000. The citizens of that county, under act of the legislature of 1918. voted road bonds amounting to $1,725,000. The federal government augmented th is um by $600,000 and modern highways are now nearly complete in that prosperous county which make travel in it in any direction about as pleasant as travel would be in the well-paved city of Columbia This port of program has also been carried out in Greenville County, Spartanburg County, Charleston County and Richland County. Governor R. A" Cooper, says, "good roads are cheap; bad roads very costly. " I he legislature now in session is planning to ex tend all the state aid that may be needed to connect up and complete the system which will make Soutn C arolina one continual road of pleasure in a short time. It is expected then that the Palmetto State win become the playground of the South, since it fJJ in scenery from the beautiful mountains at Walnaia to the placid sea at Charleston. The fjood roads programs have been boosted won derfully by automobile owners and the increase in autos in the state has been remarkable since the g(1 roa programs started. The State Highway Commission is alive to the im portance of efficiency and permanency in roads sj commissioners are Robt. G. Thomas, of Charleston, Hale Houston, of Clemons College; M. G. Holmes, oi University; C. O. Ncaron, of Spartanburg; Thomas u. t-othran, of Greenville. v ii wRoy Pennell is State Highway Commissioner, H Murray, chief of construction ; R. T. Brown, cmc v cUrACy,s ; Josel,n W. Barnwell, bridge engineer an ' Anderson, chief draftsman.