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1T1HE BE.A1RB01I2H EJSElPlEEJtflr
15 The Place Where They Have Another Chance T HE N W AL Prison at Portsmouth. . IL, frowns jLnmn over the hatbor from a slight eminence. h..r,. a d windswept, where it lectni standing on , ard. Il IS 1 nnt, ()()KmK """oing with a mean little B . tUm kind thill IfMll In )i n faaMM ,S i , iiiv - " ----- v v. ivniuiv w 1 l.irn 1 C if irlV'tllir 111 l( li-o tli-i - I. ...... nf- it 11 flv ELLIS MEREDITH entrance 1 ilwt- tit VL'i1ri ttlll' 111 it" til iamJ tin- MMImh . l.l IS 1 ' ' I IV I - - ------ . I v i IIIV 'Ql llllk guest tbl i hold fast to those who jass its inhospitable 'perhaps il the present Commander, Thomas Mod ,......... I supervised the building of that orison there n IVC been a different doorway with some word of cl er oyer it "Every Day is a fresh Begin- nnitf ? or Mackayl lines- Let not tht useless sorrow I'ursue you night and morrow. It e'er ye Imped, hope now." HoH the keynote oi the Osborne system of dealniK witl men who h.ie erred and gone astray and hcn ithoul hope ire oi all men most miserable. Hop only real "life termer" in the prison. juv nev ' in 10 let her git away. Her business is meeting man ai he COmd in, walking with him dav by day, smoothing his pillow at night, spurring him qq to do best, and sending him out stronger be catiM h learned to overcome. W ithout this in tangible, . iible aide Commander Osborne could do Httle. The Commander ll a tall, dark man with the sombre eyes ol '' who has seen life in its simple, elementary, primitive iona, shorn of artificiality. Men in pris ons are n there as a reward of merit, but if tiny ire not g at leas! they are very real, and for them life is n A the complex thing it is outside. And so CoflUnand 1 kborne brushes aside the non-essentials and gets down to bed-rock. He talks about the Golden Rule not as it it were a pious impracticality but as a forking basis for daily life. He talks of democracy not a something embalmed in the Constitution to be expounded only from the seats of the mighty, but as something inherent in all the institutions of the land. "We an making an experiment in applied democracy here," he said. "Democracy is the political expression of the Golden Rule and that is what we are trying to introduce in this prison. Our system is often mis understood People think we are merely giving senti mental interest and sympathy to these men, which is entirely false. We are doing a much more fundamental thing. The difference between our system and the Honor Systems' which have been tried in many prisons i that they deal directly with individuals, while we deal with our whole community. The Honor System ::nj)ly substitutes a benevolent autocrat for a brutal autocrat: one who gives benefits in order to make men amenable to his discipline. In this prison we deal with the community, and that brings pressure to bear on in dividuals. Good conduct here is not given to the wardes in return for special benefits, which is really equivalent tc- the warden s buying good conduct, but I deal with the entire community, and appoint as trusties' the particular men elected by the prisoners themselves. "Ever) three months the prisoners elect a Board of Delegates, which is the governing body of the Mutual Welfare i ue. Any prisoner can become a member t the Lea after being here three weeks, with good condoot. When he first arrives he is lodged in the prison with -he Second Cla ss men. After three' weeks he becom First Class man, and goes to live in the barracks, which are called ships and named for the jtates m I rder in which they were admitted to the unon. Ea ship has a captain appointed by me on 'he reconr Nation of the Kxecutive Committee of I a k'ti The Board of Delegates, the governing My, has ty-one members, but they elect an Ex nffi,Ve Ue 0 tlvc These men take turns being Wicer u! Day. This committee also elects a -ergeant ,i irmi who is the head of the police force, aaaaaaLifr Ji mWw .-ya k am m Lmw - w m aw. mmmmmmmmmmm A I A THOMAS MOTT OSBOKNE, Commander Naval Prison, Portsmouth. N. H. and he has the selecting of his subordinates. The Executive Committee also appoints a secretary of the League and the Body of Delegates meets at least once a week and they send a copy of the minutes of their meetings to the commander." Those minutes, by the way, are very illuminating. At one meeting there was a discussion of the food question, and one wonders whether Jam and its vari ations were the subjects of contention. Another time the Beard of Delegates invoked the recall of a member from the Executive Committee. They cour teously asked him to resign with but one dissenting vote, and when he refused, they deposed him forthwith and proceeded to elect his successor. Another time they drafted recommendations for rating the men, according to conduct and work, and their ideas as to the treatment of men who "show themselves unworthy of further clemency or proba tion" are plain and concrete. "Such detentioner shall be required te) finish his confinement at hard labor and serve the remaining period of his sentence under conditions imposed upon naval court-martial prisoners." On the other hand "The detentioners will be tre.ited as if they were aboard ship, having gun drills, signal drills, seamanship, etc.. which is very essential to a modern man-of-war's man." They go on to say that as a result of the proposed methods they believe "there will be a great reduction in the number of naval court martial prisoners being dishonorably discharged from the service owing to this detentioner system of handling men guilty of purely military offenses," and a large per cent of prisoners "would return to the service after serving their turn in detention." The population varies, ranging around five hundred, at the beginning of the present year, who have received sentences of from three months to life or execution. The age is twenty to twenty two. though there are b ryi much younger than that and s,)me men pat middle life, and the chart s run the whole gamut. There are men there for murder and theft and other crimes, but the popular cause of stumbling is given in the cryptic letters A W O. L. This awful deflection from the line of duty may be an accident or a momentary Tailing from grace or it may be desertion. Anyhow, absent without leave i a serious matter for the enlisted man. And yet accidents will happen. The second week in December Commander Osborne gathered up some ninety-five of his men in automobiles and trucks and took them to Manchester where they gave a very interesting and altogether delightful and remarkable entertainment at one oi the theater start ing back about midnight. Then they had "tire trouble" and an engine balked, and they didn't get home until morning, when daylight was aboul to appear. Ninety five count them terrible young desperadoes, fresh from a very creditable performance of scenes from Midsummer Night's Dream" let loose to work their will upon helpless New Hampshire 1 And what hap pened: Well, they pushed and pulled and cranked and all showed up tired but happy m time for breakfast. I hey had made good on their motto, "Trust and be trusted." Not long ago the League Officer of the Dav. a jner. was not sattsncd with conditions, so he escaped by way of showing that it could he dune and presented himself at the Commanders quarters. The "Force" felt that a bitter injustice had been done them, because by virtue of his oftke he was Cognizant of facts un known to others, and when he came up for re-election he was retired to private lite. Another time word was brought to the Commander that a "lifer"' was planning to escape. When thus charged he admitted his intentions. The ordinary way would have been to have punished him severely," said Commander Osborne in relating the story, "and I was tempted to do so at first. Then 1 thought I had no right to punish him for what he had not done, nor to assume that he might not have changed his mmd, so I called the Long Termers to gether and told them this was their business, because if one of them escaped it might mean the suppression of the League, and they should take some action. Then I left the meeting. In about an hour three men came and reported that they had formed a Long Termers' Brotherhood, the object of which was to educate the men as they came in and make them understand their responsibility, so that no long termer should violate their rules. The man who had been planning to escape was very grate tul. and this plan did more good than any amount of punishment. Yes. 1 know, there are people who object to life sentences because as a rule they are not served out. Why should they be, if a man has re pented, and made good and deserves to be returned to his place in society? It is necessary for every man to have hope. When you take that away, what is there left for him ?" What, indeed. And what is there better than to root out the weed of despair and plant the flower of hope? nd what is better than to win a certain acquiescence from these young fellows under sentence, so that they serve their time with something of the sense of rueful relief with which we all of us pay for our dead horses, at least glad when the debt is discharged? Officially this place is a prison, but the boys have none of the furtive, hang-dog look of the ordinary prisoner. They have been and still are Sous of Uncle Sam, and most of them expect to serve him on the sea again, perhaps with better understanding because of these days of discipline. This is not a penal institution, a place of punishment, a spot where the government "gets even," but rather the Place of Another Chance, where a man may find himself and begin over again. And it is that because Thomas Mott Osborne thinks the Golden Rule is practical democracy. A merica 's First Factory Made Bottles BOTTLI at some time or other, play an important "'' 1 lives of most people. It frequently dnt h h Le' that 1 bott,e is tne nrst object seen and a littl v?' babies. Medicine bottles, standing on bvt'or f 1 Often the last objects seen by people . e emlu e on thfir Inner irtiirtinv between l . ' u 'v MiK uouie and me medicine uomv Mat S " 'nus a wiuV ranKc ot' bottles both as to ther size and In h ls is all al) binp romance of American business, it Prise st : fact that the nrst in(,ustrial enter- the nnr ,,u' '(rth American continent was for tory ZSC ' ' Wnufactttring k'lass bottles. This fac- 1608 It tn at Jamestown, Virginia, in the year among tt?Va ' raU(l by some glas-blowers who were minion 3 colonists who settled in the Old Do- leaflSi t,U I?etl1 turbulent reconstruction era. nejng said and written about American oing after foreign export trade, it is of mg interest to recall that the products ar,ides ev n,'s,own bottle factory were the first fct vm tXporte from North America. i,celv unde U t,lis Xcw Wor,tl industry was getting CCo boon! U V aIo,1K carne the famous Virginia to ?lassblowin i c" soon became so popular that the ffrN hJf e,ement of the colonists decided they pre- r. "Willy; ;nrl 1 .11 dia It r,ng and smoking to blowing. ns in j mnK thereafter, however, that the ln- a arolnd Virginia made it known that they much preferred glass beads to bottles, beef, brandy or tobacco. Whereupon some of the progressive and far seeing Jamestown live wires induced some Italian glass workers to cross the ocean and convert the old bottle factory into a bead plant. A few years later some promoters started a bottle factory at Salem, Massachusetts. The town officials of that period were evidently a hustling aggregation on the lookout for the development of their town. They im mediately boosted the new industry by voting it a loan of thirty pounds. The factory was not a success, and Salem is still whistling for its thirty pounds. During the time the Dutch were running things on Manhattan Island, a bottle factory was built near Han over Square. In 1754, a Dutch gentleman named Bamber built glassworks in Brooklyn. The first bottle blown by him, bearing the name and date, is now in the collection of the Long Island Historical Society. Glassboro. X. J., was founded by a colony of Ger man glassmakers in 1775. But it was not until the close of the Revolutionary War that glass making became a permanent industry in America. In 1787 the Massachusetts legislature gave a Boston glass company an exclusive franchise to make glass in that state for 15 years. It turned out to be the first successful glass making plant in the United States. It is reasonably possible that this was the first fran chise ever granted by a legislative body. Other plants followed at short intervals. In 1865 this country had reached the stage where it was making glass equal to that of England. Glass bottles were first made at Pittsburgh. Pennsyl vania, in 17, and that city is still an important glass making center. There are now a total of 348 glass manufacturing establishments in this country. The aggregate capital invested in these industries is $1 5?.(KX),000. The value of the total annual output is $2(K).()0().(XH) at the fac tories. To operate these great plants requires the serv ices of 80,(XX) operatives. More than seventy per cent of the glas manufactured in this country is made in the four states of Pennsylvania. Ohio, Indiana and West Virginia. People first commenced UStng bottles four thousand years before the birth of Christ. The first bottles men tioned in history were made of the skins of animals, mostly goats. These are the kind of bottles to which reference is made in the Holy Scriptures. Strange to say, skin bottles are used to this day in Southern Eu rope for carrying water and wine. Certain Asiatic and African tribes also still use skin bottles for the trans portation of water. Many Italian peasants of the pres ent generation use dried gourds as bottles. The ancient Egyptians were noted for the exquisite workmanship and design of the bottles which they wrought from gold, ivory, stone and alabaster.