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THE DBAIHBOIBM nsOTOTMBBWlT This picture sfums the grease extracted from the garbage run .nto v.t, I he ..land on h.ch thi garbage plant . built itself made of ltlil dumped into the met fFWrtf Garbage is Turned Into Gold How New York City Dumped an Island Into the East RiverWhat Becomes of Junk and Ashes EVERY time a New Yorker empties the ashes in his furnace, he is helping to build an island which will some dav be worth a million dollars as real estate, and every time a New York housewife throws a bacon rind or' a few potato paring! into the garbage pail, she is helping to make somebody wealthy. "Garbage" in New York means practically every thing that is thrown away, from discarded bedsteads to discarded egg shells. And practically everything that is thrown awav. although it has ceased to have any value for its original possessor, still has some worth when it goes through the intricate processes of turn ing garbage into gold. When one throws bit of refuse into the waste paper basket or the garbage pail, it is with the feeling that that is the end of it. You have worn it or used it until it is worthless, and so it goes to oblivion. But so complicated and minute are the .steps by which a great city disposes of its refuse that what appears as the final" move toward nothingness to JTOU is but the first step in a fascinating journey. Your last summer's oxfords may still be doing duty in some altered form, and that old bedspring which you threw away, may have been rescued from its sur roundings by the contractor who removes it. and who makes an immense profit just by sorting and redispos ing of all the junk which comes his way. Piled up in high, unsightly piles, are all the strange conglomerate articles which are thrown away in a city. Men employed by the contractors go over the wagonloads as they are received, and make a rough attempt at classifying the debris This is the first step in turning the refuse into a marketable product. Old metals, such as brass and iron, are variously sorted, and ultimately get back again into the channels of manufacture. An island has risen out of nothingness in the East River, built up slowly out of the water by a gradual accumulation of ashes. This is Kicker's Island, which you could not have discovered at high tide a few short years ago. but which was visible as a flat, muddy, mosquito-infested bit of swamp in low tide. Gradually under the city's direction, this island, op posite Ninetieth street, has been formed by scow-load after scow-load of ashes and refuse. Today it is an island of considerable Mze, and growing constantly, as more ashes are added to the shallow spot in the river. In the course of time, it is predicted that the land of this island will be worth a million dollars, in view of By CARROLL EVERETT the scarcity of land close to Manhattan Island. '1 he citv's immense garbage disposal plant has been erected on Kicker's Island, and here the elaborate processes for "reducing" the garbage are carried on. To this plant are brought all the waste, and all the garbage, and here most of it is rendered into market able form. What doesn't lend itself to being made over into something else is merely made to increase the size of the island. Every day of the week you may see the scows "dock ing" at this artificial island, and adding to the raw product which is to be turned from garbage into gold. The waste material receives a second and thorough sorting when it reaches Kicker's Island, and such addi tional junk as the contractor can use is placed in the empty scows and hauled back. Tnis second sorting turns up a great deal of ma terial, some of it of surprising character. The con tractor's assistants always know just what purpose will be served by all the stuff, however, and it is collected into various piles to await the emptying of the scows However, some is sorted out of the wagons on Manhattan to save the extra hauling of it. But nothing is overlooked in the end. and every possible conversion of the discarded material is taken care of. The cable road on the island takes care of the ashes, and transports them to whatever spot is being filled in at the time. By gradually increasing the range oi the "dump," the size of the island, and its height above the river surface are being increased. Immense steam shovels are used to load and un load the cars on the cable road, and every device of modern invention to facilitate the movement of the ashes is to be found there. Cable cars also run from the dock to the disposal plant, carrying the refuse which is to undergo the re fining processes there. In case the scows are run up close to the plant, another method of getting the ma terials from the barges into the plant is used. Men -hovel the refuse onto a conveyor, and it is thus car ried into the plant by machinery. This conveying runway leads to the "Digester" shed. Sometimes there are scores of men at work, shoveling material upon the convevor, so that vou can imagine the capacity of the plant, and particularly of the "Digester"' machines. These machines an perhaps the most important factor in garbage reduction. They are immense tanks or boilers, placed in a horizontal position, and each with a tremendous "appetite" for raw garbage, just as it is dumped from the bar The garbage is placed in tin in, and 0 tor a considerable period of time. This cooking is the b. step in garbage reduction, and is the first pi esi securing the greases and fertilizers which are the main products of garbage reduction. When the garbage is thoroughh steamed, or "cooked," the liquid part of it which has t - drawn from the bulk by the heat is drawn off by mean tilting the great machines and allowing the heated grease to flow out. The grease is conveyed to another type oi round tank, and here the prooetl of refining the raw continued. The fluid is entirely recooked. :v through the process in different form. Tin heat has refined it to a considerable degree. Outside the "Digester." huge vats have been built, into which the grease, now in the form of a rather heavy and sticky lubricant, is allowed to run. Stai g tfag nant in these vats, the solid matter which it remains in it slowly settles to the bottom, and the 1 J con siderably clarified. It is now of about the istency of a heavy lubricating oil, and has a C Krable market value. This is the condition in which the major rtion 01 the refuse and scraps from your table ultimately hnd themselves, and this is the aim of the ma compli rated prOCeSSei through which you have t '1 the potato peeling! and the rind of bacon. . frr tVin cr1wl nrtinnc nf thr rotllst H tlll remain, they have their purpose to fulfill as might appear to be merely the left-over-, but not imply that they are valueless. These solids are conveyed to a hydraulu there subjected to immense pressure. H in the form of solid cakes, and in the pi ing them, still more oil is squeezed from the These cakes are excellent fertilizer, and their way back into the soil. In this ma r, man helps nature in her own processes, for it atures way for the decayed and useless vegetatio: retun to the soil and enrich it. . Thus you see how garbage is turned in! Id, an how refuse mav he made into an island Thev at does it, and UN out if mak- 1US find ff-r the free grease and oil hat been drained from the tanks of cooked garbage, this garbage goes through powerful presaing machines which extract more of the oil and greaac. Some of the great tanks or garbage "Digesters" into which the garbage is placed and heated pwaia me grease from other material.