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Csfog a Smudge to Save the Orange Crop Potnotll, California. Feb.. 1920. PROBABLY every one "t the 11,164 grower ot oranges and lemoni in Southern California is rest less these winter nightl letl Jack Prott may ar rive. The tune oi annul i always any tee be tween midnight antl daylight and the expectancy i based on a clear, dry night and a falling temperature. crop of oraimo that hangs on the trees, now almost mature. is roughly valued at 4ii.o(Mi.iKK) (at presenl prkes) and lemons Will add. it safely marketed, at least $15.(KHMHH). Yet ity minutes of a freezing tem perature in the groves may damage the product so that fully $50,(KK).(KM) may be completely lot. That happened once, the first week in January. 1913. 11 but $6420,000 of a lemon and orange yield, that was reckoned at $63,000,000, was froeen so that it had from the tree- and dumped into guicnes, . trosi made iiiirn ior an iihh huh m $20,000,000 to $22,000,000 Horticultural ... . . i . Hecke. oi California, reckons mat m reason of Jack Frost I noc citTUS growers of the ta t . Besides, the prune, apricot. mil- By H. G. TINS LEY sold. urv. ha: the hi- his I) IfcAdoO, former secretary of a subterranean irrigation built at u r win u miuiv. u...v'..n ible wave goes to -M degrees ( my inn has co crcu m which he allows a spray ot treas Santa citrus above with The held tove, about seven gallons and Barbara grove, t,-. . w hi ". A !0s zero. A grower trdiivp nt iron nine from . I..w,-, !lll VV lu ll the mercun and barometer warn L Pros! is near, lie snows repona been hurt a dollars worth by irost, expense and labor, used one pot for two trees live and si-car old heaters, made of sheet Heel three gallons. That required a refilling of the if it was burned from sunset until dawn, at midnight. The latest heaters hold will burn furiously ten nours. People who have nothing to do with the lem. orange industry may w under why, if yields are a laved from frott, all the growers are not unar for the heater propositi. mi. It is largely a mat It that to be torn year before, worth from Commissioner net thirtv vear.s the havoc. turnal visits, has coat the altogether over 5Si M M .( H bv that his aeK i i i'si mmm In v ne er even though his neighbors have suffered icvcrciy, tu ,i iiiiimbr invention bv which frost 1 DC out n"oi rr " - . , . fought in California is by the old original method ot raising temperature. The heater is popularly called the smudge-pot. because so many early frost fighters rea soned that I dense black soot was as useful as heat. It prevents a too rapid thawing of the froen orange or lemon, when the earliest rays of sunshine smite, after There are several hundred inventions ol n and tuaUj imont r of economic ahillt) and ot opinion. It costs big m ev to run heaters ami especially is the original expens ,w is H it ised I j us-fruit wn. the cold night. ..u -yA nria v the o ivp urowers nave lost lions more by reason of frosts in the blooming time. 0 April. In the past twenty-two winters alone, frost losses to citrus growers have reached a total of $60. 000.000. Frost always comes at the eleventh hour, just as the expense and labor of a year of cultivation, irriga tion, fumigation, fertilization and care of a grove has ended and the harvest is close at hand. Yet. so profitable has been the industry that it has increased between $15,000,000 and $20,000,000 (according to Com missioner Hecke since 1T5. The value of the industry (ac cording to like authority ) including land, trees, irrigation systems, pack ing houses and their machinery, is $182,000,000. It was $32,000 thirty-five years ago. Naturally inventive genius has devoted itself to de vising a scheme for combating the one great alarm of the growers. Every community in California has its inventor of an anti-frost system. Talk with any grower and you will find he has evolved some scheme for checking the advance of frost to his fruit. There are schemes without number tor using water to draw frost from where it is not wanted. Twenty-two inventions were taken out in San Diego County alone, for running sprays while frost is severest. There are dozens of plans for irrigation. Water, it is argued, draws frost and the scheme is to attract the damaging cold from the fruit on the trees, when greatest damage occurs. Over 100 men have patented schemes for creating currents of air during a frosty night. No damage has been done, so experience shows, when the mercury goes low and there is a freeze blowing. A still air on a cold night is when frost is most serious. So all man ner of electrical wheels. ROM that will blow air across tree tops and machines that will automatically raise a wind from one end of a grove, have been devised. A Standard Oil magnate, who had a l(X)-acre grove at Riverside, had his whole grove inclosed within a shelter built of laths at an expense of $20,000. He never said whether several years' trial was a success. The late actress. Madame Modjeska. had cone-shaped tents made for her Valencia orange grove near Santa Ana. but the expense of setting them up was within a few dollars of the whole returns from all the fruit she They are all alike in gen crude oil and in form and length of smoke stack and California courts have been heaters and smudge-pots, eral principle in burning size But they differ in In vents and drafts. The clogged with suits about smudge-pot patents. Set in the groves in San Gabriel. Pomona and Cucamonga valleys alone are over 400,000 heaters. JW IS story tells of millions spent to save California's orange crop from frost, and of millions lost by failure to use artificial heat. The article as a whole gives a very good idea of the extent of the orange and lemon industry on the Pacific coast. Riverside colony resisted use of the smoky heater for seasons until it was shown that they actually saved a grove's product. The same was true of Ontario and Lamanda. But last year, when on Christmas night the temperature went down to 21 and 22 degrees Fahren heit, and a running of heaters saved thousands of acres from injury, while as many thousand acres, un supplied with heaters, were frost hurt, the solution was so evident that the orders this past summer have been the heaviest on record. If the thermometer does drop one night this winter, the indications are that half a million heaters will be run. Pomona and Claremont are the heaviest users of heaters in the whole state. The horticultural office finds the sum of $1,360,000 has been spent in orchard heaters, and that during the last summer $450,000 of this has been invested, chiefly in Riverside and Corona. The Chase grove, the largest in California, spent $220,000 in heaters. The Chase crop of oranges and lemons, last winter, brought $175,000. Had it not been for Jack Frost's visit on Christmas night, it would have been nearer half a million dollars. Consensus of opinion at the state horticultural meeting in Riverside was that most any smudge-pot and heater (it all depends upon the abundance) would raise the temperature at least five degrees. Several heaters claim eight and ten degrees. Four years ago, when inventions had not been made in the heaters, one heater or pot to a tree was common. Now that larger heaters and more efficient apparatus have been devised, one heater to four trees is the average. But the more timid grower, bound to save his crop at any Before the war advanced prices of steel and was different l abor costs have also greatly foci The question it, do the sales of oranges and lemon tify the outlay for anti-frost devices, even thong! nrices nave kuiic uu iu un. ihm unun eei k flu battle with frost was not reckoned on calculation of the buyer of a grove when he invested. It is all extra expense, joined with the rapid advances in maintaining his property. Modern orchard heaters never cost less than $5 and $7, no matter for what the grower may contract. There are at least forty heaters to an acre. That i fully $280 for an acre. Then there is the big oil tank for keeping oil in every ten or twenty-acre grove. It costs from $100 to $250. The labor in hauling the heaters from the car to the grove and in setting them up averages $10. Crude petroleum used to cost two mil a half cents a gallon, besides freight Now, it costs DVC cents and freight. The usual price for day work in rill ing the heaters, and in preparing for the cold at night, is $4 for each person. The night worker gets $7 now. Two men can care for ten acres, or 40(1 heaters. So one night's operation of heaters in oil and labor, on ten acres, plus the dav's preparation, is $142. The original cost for a ten-acre grove is fully $3,000. In most winters there are three nights when the grower thinks the heaters should be operated. In the winter of 1912-13, many growers in San Gabriel and Pomona valleys state that "smudges" were burned 17 nights. Of course, more heaters to the grove mean more oil and more laborers. The grower usually faces $500 a year of ant i-frost expenses, whereas he paid $3,000 an acre for his grove in summer days, when the cold of a winter night was farthest from his estimates. You know what one smoking kerosene lamp does. Imagine a smoking lamp, fifty times as large and then imagine a quarter of a million of them smoking within an area of five miles all night long. The air, for miles about, is heavy with oil smoke. It is as if an immense tank of petroleum were burning in the midst of a com munity. It is an insidious smudge that enters every crevice. Xo opening is too narrow. Household fabrics are blackened and wall paper ruined and hanging- are spoiled in a few hotirs. Farewell to the decorations in a home. All buildings that were grey or white D nie a grimy dark. The cry is. we cannot let the fruit be frozen even if the town is submerged under a dark cloud as black as an Egyptian night. Damage suits have resulted and even physicians have testified that deaths have resulted among patients with weak breathing powers. Pomona city held an I vtion and made it a misdemeanor to create a smudge by burning an orchard heater no matter how I v the mercury went or how seriously a grower view d the situation. The Real Meaning of "Cycle of Cathay 99 "Better fifty years of Europe than a Cycle of Cathay." HOW man persons, repeating this familiar and stirring line, know what a Cycle of Cathay is? I didn't. Being a little curious I submitted the question to a number of well informed people. To my surprise none knew more than myself. 1 repaired to the convenient dictionaries. It is not to be found. The encyclopedias are as reticent on the subject. A cycle i a word of familiar use and defined in our dictionaries. It is a certain round or circle, applied chiefly to revolving celestial bodies. A cycle of the sun. or solar cycle, comprises 2H years. That is, every 28 years January First falls on the same day of the week, and so with all the other days of the year. One of our greatest dictionaries, in its latest edition, gives several varying meanings of cycle and among others this : "3. An age; a long period of time. "Better fifty years of Europe than a Cycle of Cathay. Tennyson." Naturally, one supposes a long period of time, to give significance to Tennyson's line. The meaning, of course, is better fifty years of Europe than, say, a thou sand of Cathay. If a cycle were a hundred years there would be little force to the poet's contrast. Looking into an old book on China, however, I fell upon a description of the Cycle of Cathay. Until recent years nearly all of our books on China and the Chinese srere written by missionaries, and this is true of the one referred to. written in 1879. The Cycle, the author notes), was adopted as the Chinese method of reckoning time 2,637 years before Christ, in the reign of the Em peror Hwangti. or. as the author piously observes, "518 years after the Deluge, 82 years after the death of Arphaxad. and about that time before the Confusion of Tongues' at the Tower of Babel. It takes us back, therefore, a long time, and nothing perhaps impresses the mind so well with the vast venerablem ss, the antiquity of China. The Cycle of Cathay was nted, as Chinese tradition relates, by the Emperor's faWCW prime minister. Xau the Great. It was in universal use throughout the Chinese Empire in the time of Confucius. The author prints a picture of the Cycle. It i ,not "a long period of time." after all. but is exacts sixty years. Each of thes,- years has a separate name, hc our months, and in the picture each is depicted on the outer rim of the cycle, or circle, and the names are read in order from right to left, beginning at the top. Within the circle, it will hi notired. is a sinai e circle, and this is curiouslv divided into two irregular l-.l. . . - e .i . . ...L..s ifl ",,v pnictui in. u k aim uie uuiu w . the eye of each of the two half-moons is a diminutive Tut CycLI op Cathay lMUl uiu is curiouslv divided into two in-6v... halves, one perfectly black and the other white Mmi f ..r t. . i f .1.. ,, :tP circle, while in th Mb .wi kio,.u in the wnite one. with a dot in the outer, of the opposite lor: These mystic figures in the center represent the dua forces, Yin and Vang, svmbolized by darkness and UfW wind, form the starting point of Chinese philosopny. Wlule the Cycle of ( athav was invented .v " and therefore 4557 years ago and is the oldest calendar or almanac extant, it was not formally adopt uutu the next year, for it appears that the present year, whicn we call 1920, is the 56th year of the 76th Cycle oi Cathay from the beginning, and in 1924 the 77th Cycle will start. Considerable poetic license must be given to Tenny son, therefor, "Better fifty years of Europe tljfl 'ty ,f Cathay." would hardly have conveyed me meaning of his famous line. -H T'