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Deaths Exceed Births in France Nation 0 .,,. France, Mar., 192ft i ii the mosi sik nificant social move ., a in France today ii-hich is seeking to m iiiai . T , awaken the conscience and the intelligent of the country to the im portant' checking the constant fall in the birth rate which threatens the na tion wit! depopulation and extinction. Taking up the normal life of peace time with the terrific drawback of nearly two million m ' killed in the flower of their youth ! ":" B tnc war anc not less tnan another million dead of wounds and disease 01 totally disabled, the problem has become an acute and pressing one I question indeed of "practical politics." If I-, e it to have a future at all, it is urged in and out of Parliament, she nn, ' ise more children. Patriotism and large 1 a mi lies are being closely linked in the thought! of the people. Child w::.!e stations are being estab lished, largcl) with the wise advice and adequate financial help of the Rockefel ler Foundation! branch society here. In all the lyceei and universities, special courses of lectures are being given. Thousands of tracts are being dis tributed and illuminating potters on the dead-walla and "cliche columns" appeal to the passer-by. The accompanying photographic reduction of one of note colored poster! is a particularly graphic prcsentatn m of the actual situation. The brave and wholesome looking mother of a family is pointing to a map of Prance mi which is shown in vividly contrasting black and white the birth and death rates in each department. It is a striking ihowtng. In 67 of the 89 departments of France the birth rate is lower than the death rate; in only 22 do the births slightly exceed the deaths. The poster is beaded: "For the Life, it does not suffice to shout 'Vive la France!' France must be made to live." Seek Legal Encouragement UDOUR LA VIE" (For the Life) is I th name of one of the chief or ganisations for this propaganda and pub lishes I monthly paper under this name. As stated at the bottom of the poster, it is a "League for the raising of the French natality and the defense of numerous families.1 It is a coalition which con sider! that it will be of no benefit to France I have won the war. if before the end of a century the nation is to disappear for lack of children. It is pointed out in the declaration of principlt of this organization that. trom wl itever point of view we may regard tl event! of the Furopean War of 1914 18, one thing is certain beyond discussion, and that b thai France cannot and should not resume with the retui of peace the mode of life which she for mtrb t wed She must recognize the reality and the urgeno certain essential obligations, which it is not perniitt t ; any national collectivity to violate with out exi 11 itself to the direst calamities. Among these 00 ations none is more pressing than that of the recriiitw of the race. "Unfortunately, many French peoph still almost totally unconscious of this ob ligation onaequently social institutions, collaborating with n dual selfishness, join to make more difficult each y. the establishment of homes on a sound and nealth basis." Sonic lea of the immensity of the task which these Is Worried By PAUL TYNER Pour laViie,, 1 arm .mm mn i . jt a cure vwre, mam fhmbrt ddpr(tmtnti ou '4 Norttit dtpaxse U Nitihtt 67 LIGUE POUR LE RELEVEMENT DE LA NATALITE FRANCHISE ET LA DEFENSE DES FAMILLES NONBREKSES OC SOCIAL' U MAOAMC nuns m P CHAHPlNOlS PAAI4 I his map is of France. The figures give the number of deaths in each department for every 100 births. The departments having an excess of births over deaths are in white. The departments in which there is an excess of deaths over births are in black. The figures are of pre-war conditions in 1914. reformers have set themselves may be gained from the legislative measures which it is demanding as urgent and necessary. These include: The Family Vote, Kn couragement of Marriage, Allowances from the State for Births, Social In surance. Aid to Numerous Pamilies, Treatment of Government Employes, Individualization of Taxes, Housing of Numerous Families, Reform of the Laws of Inheritance and of Inheritance Taxation. It is proposed to reform the consciences and the cus toms of the people in order to change the laws ; and to change the laws in order to change the manners and customs. Along with its campaign to bring about a better knowledge of the duties which care for the perpetuity of the race imposes on every citizen, the organization lias adopted an electoral pro gram oi which the leading de mand is for the family vote, that is, the institution of a franchise under which fathers and mothers of three children or more, representing an absolute ma jority of the French population, should aNo pusses an absolute majority of the suffrages It takes trp the battle against alcoholism and tuberculosis; the last notably by the provision of sanitary housing and the placing of children pre disposed to tuberculosis at a distance from the dwelling! of persons likely to spread the contamination. It is asked that every married woman should be allotted by the state a minimum grant of 500 francs for every living child be ginning with the third, the allotment t. DC paid under guaranties as to its use that will constitute it in some sort a premium on health and conservation of life and in no sense as alms. Larger Pay for Men of Families MOST radical arc the demand! of the program in regard to a dis crimination in appointment!, promotions and salaries in the public service favor ing parents f numerous families and subjecting married men as well as bach elors to a reduction in salaries if when between M) and 35 years of age they have no children, while giving increases to men having more than two children. Numerous families are also to enjoy a prior riyht to recjuisition lodging at rea sonable prices. And such families are to enjoy substantial reductions in direct taxes, "as a feeble compensation for the numerous surcharges borne by such families in the matter of indirect con tributions to the revenues of the state." In the last Chamber, 157 deputies sig nified their adhesion to this program The Committee of Patronage of tin League includes the names of many of the leading physicians, scientific men, and publicists of France, among them Dr. J. Bertillon, G. Belot, Kmile Bout roux, of the French Academy; Jules Breton, Ferdinand Buisson, Baron Denys-Cochin, of the FVench Academy; K. Colson. Paul Doumer, Professor Charles Gide, P. A. Helmer, Henri Joly, Ernest Lavisse, the Abbe Letourneau, Rene Millet, Joseph Reinach, Professor Charles Richet, Pastor Robert. Mme. Jules Siegfried, the Abbe Soulange Bodin, General Pan. To repair the losses, to restore ex hausted forces, to lift up the ruins, to resume in the world the place which should be assured her bv the sacrifices and griefs SO heroically endured, France must begin by reconstituting its homes. The actual statistics present some startling facts. They show that for a generation past, France has owed her continued existence to only a minority of French families in a minority of the departments. In even 100 families of France before the war, 1( were child less. 28 had only one child and 23 had only two chil dren. Twenty-three families had three or four chil dren, eight had five or six and only three had as many as seven. That is, in 100 families there were 44 having fewer children than parents fewer individuals to re place the parents than parents to replace. Yet this minority of two millions of families having more than three children each gave to the country eleven million citizens more than all the other families combined! They gave to the country one-half of all its defenders! Choosing Their Nationality by Vote PU S ITF is from a Latin word, plcbiscitum, a 1 tru People. It is the direct exercise of se t termination. The plebiscite recently held ftifSS g' 3,1(1 ,1HV bnnfsr held in districts formerly prsctSIS Part nf Prl,ssia' now claimed by Poland, is the for wh , M'",uation Of the first and greatest principle whkIi American boys went to Europe. flitioir VIC ,tSr,f is no nuvo1 One, although the con p0 s' ,M S(,," respects, are. In Schleswig and in and w 'UTN.aI Sl,ffragc will be applied; that is, men will knu " ,iUv wi'l vote, and no interested nationality ecutiMM P!rn?lttc to have any part in the official ex Cut(,J of the plebiscites. French v K" as ,792' w,un ar"V ot the first tions ("f ,,t,m,)1,c cnterel Savoy and Nice, the annexa inhabitant T 1.r()V,nces to France took place after the pressing ti .Dcen given an opportunity of ex sedly an i . wishes. A similar choice was, profes French ' d to Ma'en and Belgium, after the From ;rintSt "f a Tear later, voritr I r u te rward the plebiscite was a fa rithlctHonl ,nstnmunt. and was employed for the ,hc most f M,ccessive French conquests; prohablv lhe Coon dW?1!0! l'biscites was that of 1852, when ('mIror 1851 was continued and the title of Kiven to Napoleon III. It was in 1848 that the first real experiment of asking a population to choose its nationality by vote was tried. The union of Italy was made possible by force of arms, but care was taken to 'obtain popular approval of the constitution of the new kingdom. In 1848 some of the North Italian states voted for their incorporation in the Kingdom of Piedmont, while others chose to be annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In I860 a further series of plebiscites in Central Italy, Naples and Sicily resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, while Nice and Savoy voted them selves into the French Kmpire. A plebiscite was held in Venice after the war of 1866. and in Rome after its occupation by the Italians in 1870. Since then there have been only two plebiscites of this character; one was in 1877, when the island of Saint-Barthelemy, which the French had ceded to Sweden in 1784, was purchased from Sweden by the Third Republic, after the inhabitants had been con sulted: the other was in 1905, when the Norwegians voted for separation from Sweden and for the creation of a Kingdom of Norway. Of the plebiscites now interesting the world, the Schleswig poll (of which one zone had been held), is in fulfilment of a broken promise. When, by the Treaty of Prague in 186C), the Austrian were compelled to yield to Prussia the Austrian share of the spoils ac cruing to the two countries from their Danish war of two years earlier, they stipulated that the people of North Schleswig "if, by free rote, they express a wish to be united to Denmark, shall be ceded to Denmark ac cordingly. " Bismarck never troubled to carry out this Stipulation, rejected a petition Signed by nearly 30,000 of the inhabitants, and treated with severity any pro Danish agitation in the province. This attitude he justified on the technical ground that the Kmperor of Austria and the King of Prussia were the only parties to the Treaty, and that no one, except the tistrian Emperor, had any right to ask for tin fulfilment of the clause. The plebiscite in Upper Silesia is an attempt to right a very old wrong, for many centuries have passed since Silcsian Poles came under the domination of Bo hernia, whence they passed, with Bohemia itself, to ustria, and, in the middle of the eighteenth century, to Prussia. For nearly eight hundred years they have retained their Polish consciousness and, at last, they are to have an opportunity of asserting their Polish nationality. third plebiscite will be taken among the Poles of I .ist Prussia, who have been under Prussian rule for about two centuries.