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Europe's Wave of Violence, War's By -Product The Increase in Grime in Both England and France Is Ascribed to War Training, Declares This British Writer London, England, March, 1920. EARLY in 117 the present writer and an ac quaintance were walking late one night through a narrow street in a big industrial town in Eng land. Hearing a woman's screams from one of the mis erabl ing hottSCl which formed mot of the street, tjU 50 t policeman. He ascertained that an old friend oi the police, returned from prison, was threat ening the wife for a murderous assault on whom he had jut sen '1 term; then he continued cheerily "When jlu w over, you'd better not come down this street. V used only to patrol this beat two men at a time. It's bctt fr most of the old jail-birds are safely in th army, but when the war ends they'll all be back agaii C of them loo.-e than there've ever been be fore ai d then we'll see some lively times." The policeman wai right, as the present crime-wave proves, ft is direct product of the war and, so far ai Europe Ii concerned, is rife not only in England but as much or even more in Paris and Berlin. In England then been within the last eight months at least a dozen brutal murders of which the perpetrators have not 1 brought to justice; half of them have taken place within the last few weeks and in most cases (as with tl i quite different political murders in Ireland) the police have not even effected an arrest. Crimes of violence may furnish a sensation, but they are not them telves ol serious interest except insofar as they il lustraT . tlie mentality of a people or a time. The pres ent wav is worth attention precisely because it largely spring from the demoralization consequent on war. Ultimately war may be decided by moral force, but its immediate weapons are brute force, violence, sur prise These are the characteristics of the present outbreak. If men are taught for years that the main object of their training is the more efficient use of bayonet and bomb and that the harsh discipline to which they are submitted has this end in view, it is not to be supposed that when the discipline is suddenly re laxed they will at once forget the lesson and revert to tfu icnse oi moral order and mutual restraint from which they were violently shaken by the war. It is not in tlie least an accident that the greater part of the murders recently committed in this country have been crimes of sheer brute violence comparable with the killing done in the heat of hand-to-hand combat with the btttt-end of a rifle. That terrible feature by itself distinguishes these crimes from those of peace From an English Correspondent and labels them as a product of the violent shock of war. The characteristics of the outbreak involve more than murder. It will be remembered that in the days of the Russian Revolution of 1905, when the revolutionaries pitted their own violence against that of the Czarist government, there were innumerable cases of the "hold-up," the feature of which was a surprise raid on some bank or post office whose funds were to be seized. This country is now having a similar ex perience; almost every week a branch of some bank or post office especially post offices which are largely staffed by women clerks is held up by armed men. The most casual observer cannot fail to see in this the direct result of the lesson which every soldier learns in war, that surprise attack, the sudden appearance in superior strength, is the easiest and most certain road to victory. The post office hold-up is only the trench raid transferred to peace and civil life. Another feature of the day is the tendency of crim inals to act on a more ambitious scale, to use fire arms against the police and to operate in gangs. The warehouse quarters of London have recently been the hunting-ground of a gang of about twenty men. Part of the gang would break into a warehouse in the early evening and spend the night in packing up goods all ready for removal. Early in the morning would come the remainder of the gang with a big wagon and while some kept watch and dealt with intruders, the rest would load the spoil in the wagon and transport tt rapidly to the hiding place provided. A certain proportion of these crimes is unquestion ably due to the "old hands" who had spent many years in prison before the war and will gradually be rounded up and put there again. The leader of the gang al ready mentioned was a well-known and expert crim inal and recently a hardened burglar was sent to prison who, after having served well and faithfully in the war, returned to his old occupation within a few weeks of his final release from the army. Of two brothers in Berlin who have recently committed a remarkable series of crimes one had precisely the same record. It cannot be said of these men, as of many others, that they learned violence from the war. They are of the professional class and had the trick already, but their natural propensities have been increased and sharp ened by their experience! in respect both of the nor mal rigid discipline and of the compulsion to the ex treme of violence which war brings with it. In Paris the crime-wave has two special features which have not been noticed in this country. When the war ended, Paris was the home of deserters of many nations many of them criminals and bad char actersand ever since the armistice the police have been organizing raids and "drives" to root them out. But the curious thing is not that there are many "new criminals" in France, for both England and Germany have their counterpart, but that many of them art youths of sixteen or seventeen years. In England we have our juvenile crime, which many people say has increased greatly during and since the war, and we attribute it variously to lack of parental control or the demoralizing influence of the film of violence. But the crime of the adolescent youth seems to be specially a feature of Paris violence. Whatever explanation is accepted, we come back to the war. Some say that it is not the grown man only, who did the actual fighting, but the youth also who has been growing up in the same atmosphere, that has had his moral sense blunted, has l-t the respect for social order and discipline which in normal times he takes as an accepted part of his system, and has come to believe that force and violence will give him what he wants, even at the cost of human lite, which any way in the new philosophy is cheap. And this is really the most reasonable explanation, for the only other that is offered is the prolonged absence of fathers from their families during the war. which is only to say that the war-cult of violence ran riot in the home no less than in the field. There is no moral to be drawn from the wave of crime except that the war-spirit does not die with war. War is waged with material weapons, but its process is worked out in the human spirit. Spiritually, how ever necessary and inevitable a war may sometimes be. it is a reversion to the ideas of a primitive and savage state. Not every mind is so rooted in the ideas of duty and of social obligat ion that when the recall sounds it can restore the mental balar.ee which the war had overthrown. Long after the "old hands" are back in prison we shall suffer for the years in which we had to enthrone brute force over the head of rea son and social justice. Which Presidential Cabinet Had the Most Members? Changes in Wilson's Portfolio Recall Shifts of Other Days ON CCOUNT of several changes in President W ilson's cabinet during recent months, it has ne quite popular for many people to make the I assertion that more men have served in the Wilso ibinet than in the cabinet of any other Presi dent, re were considerably more changes among cabinet officers during the Kooe It and Grant admin- rtrati than has been the i 1 far during the Wil son regime. of 29 men served jj tin abinet of Theodore Kop' That was the nigh n id in the country's history. During that admin- tttrati lure were six dif- fcni rctaries of the avv postmasters gen- secretaries ot state, three secretaries of the Jjeaj in . three lecretaries of n ar,th lecretftrsts of Com- a td Labor, three attorney-,.. rals, and two sec retaries oi the Interior. James Wilson, secretary of apiculture, was the only man T wrved in the cabinet during the Ministration Twenty-f,v made "J d there were only 2 If". Cabin1 portfolios at IT where, mere are g?nt had VVar, five lour three each in the state, war, and attorney-general's de partments, and two postmasters general. With the appointment of a successor to Secretary Lansing, a total of 20 men will have served in the Wilson cabinet. Andrew Jackson came within one of having as THE HAUNTED HOUSE. Roosevelt entire ad- ve changes were nng Grant's adminis- i at nresent ten. President ''ve secretaries of attorney -generals, tr. r-Mmasters general. Sta t l,m(S ot the Treasurv. two secretaries of f tht i. l S(vrctaries of the Navy and three secretaries "Ie interior. inet tadfai Tyl('r hacl 20 (,iffcnM1t men in his cab" hiL there were only six departments tanes f k v W at thr hcad He hac! f,vc sccre" nsi Aavy, four secretaries of the Treasury, i our many members of his official family as Tyler and Wil son. He had 19, divided as follows : five secretaries of the Treasury, four secretaries of State, three secre taries of War, three secretaries of the Navy, two post masters general and two attorney-generals. Grover Cleveland, who was the only President to stage a come-back after having been out of the White House for an interval, had 11 cabinet officers during his first term and 12 during his second. The only Presidents who never made any changes in their original appointments were : William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Franklin Pierce and James A. Garfield. Even George Washington seemed to have considerable difficulty in keeping appointees in his cab mi ' " i inet. His record was four secretaries of State, three sec retaries of War, three post masters general, three attorney-generals and two sec retaries of the Treasury. There was no such official as secretary of the Xavy at that time. From including consisted The ohn Adams to and Polk, the cabinet of six members. secretarv of the Interior was added with the Taylor administration. The next addi tion was that ot Agriculture, which was inaugurated dur ing Cleveland's first term. The Department of Com merce and Labor was horn during the Roosevelt era. These tWO departments were later divided and under the present administration there is a member ol tlie cabinet for each oi them. Following are the num ber of changes that took place in the cabinets of all --jj- of the Presidents: Washing ton, 15; Adams, 8; Jeffer son, 11; Madison, 18; Mon roe, 11; John Quincv Adams, 7; lackson, 19; Van Buren, 10; Harrison, h; Tyler. JO; Polk. 9; Taylor, 7; Fillmore. 11; Pierce, 7; Ruchanan, 14; Lincoln, 13; lohnson, 13: Grant, 25; Haves. 10; Garfield, 7; Arthur. 17; Cleveland. 11; Harrison. 11; Cleveland. 12; McKinlev. 15; Roosevelt. 2; Taft. 11; Wilson. 20.