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Use Modern Country Homes to Hold the Young Folks on the Farms THE progress which is being made in establishing modern country homes in the Middle West prob ably is the most interesting thing in agriculture today. Certainly it is a hopeful indication of the future. If the rural homes are made modern, it will do much to put the farming business in a position so it can compete successfully with the city in the re wards it can offer; this wiil aid greatly in holding the best of the younger people. The financial rewards in farming are becoming more satisfactory every year, and with the coming of modern homes the boys and girls will come to see that the country also will offer an opportunity to obtain the brighter and more satis factory things of living. An optimistic view of the fu ture certainly is justified. Rural living- has gone through several interesting epochs in leading up to the present era of modern homes. The first epoch was the era of overproduc tion which followed the Civil War. The Middle West was settled in the seventies and eighties so rapidly that the market requirements for iood were exceeded. As a result food prices went below the COSt of produc tion, and the returns obtained by fanners were de cidedly unsatisfactory. The present generation can well remember the days when corn sold for 15 cents a bushel and wheat for 35 cents, with prices for live stock in proportion. Naturally the building of homes suffered under a system of this kind, for of course the returns did not justify any "spreading out" in home-building except perhaps in the case of a few of the leading operators who were able to farm a large acreage. Increase in Production IN THE years before the Great War. however, the price of food advanced. The industrial life of the nation was developed, and market demands increased. More and more the people built great cities the growth of the leading centers of American life in con nection with the progress of manufacturing in the quarter century before the outbreak of the war is one of the most interesting epochs in the history of tlu nation. With this growth of the great cities came a most encouraging improvement of farm machinery. Agricultural implements became more efficient, and farmers became skilled in handling them. The day of power farming dawned. As a result of this there was an encouraging increase in man production, until to day the production of the workers in the Middle West is higher than in any other part of the world. The av erage man productio of Western farmers, for example, is about three times that of the average French farmer. This larger production, in connection with the higher prices which naturally prevailed as a result of war conditions greatly increased the financial returns in farming. For the first time farmers were placed in F T? 13 XTTfl-JOT Q tad one which they should hold in their mill's H By t. ti. II1CHVJL &C years of the accumulation of wealth? BoviS girls are many times lured away from their hom. a financial condition to buy the improvements essen tial in modern living. Water supply system, farm electric light plants, and better house furnishings are being sold today at a rapid rate in every part of the Middle Wet. Many new homes are being built. It seems that this movement will continue indefinitely. It is well started the demand for modern homes is nation-wide and is firmly planted in the minds of all classes of farmers. It seems probable that the prices for food products will continue fair for a long time to come there is no indication that dangerously low levels will ever be reached. More than this, there is a disposition to look upon modern country homes as an investment, not an ex pense. In providing for better living they enable the farm family to increase production, in most cases more than enough to pay the cost. In this respect they work out in much the same way as the motor car movement has done ; most farmers get more than enough business advantage from a car to pay for the cost, and the pleasure which the family obtains is clear profit. The net effect of the modern home in most cases is to make the family contented with country life, and to stop very abruptly the drift of the yenger peo ple to the city. Why should young folks enter into the uncertain and mad competition of city life when they can have a happier life in the country with the chance of getting larger financial rewards? Naturally the holding of the best of the young people in the rural communities will have a happy effect on the coming agriculture; these brighter minds will be needed as leaders. They will do much in improving social conditions, and in supplying the aggressive lead ership needed in obtaining economic justice. The average men and women on farms are working for the perfecting of the home in which they live. People, whether they live in the country or in the city, believe that the home comes first. The fact that a mod ern house has not been the first building erected on the farm is no indication that this is not the funda mental plan. Reason teaches that in order to be able to build a modern home one must first turn his attention to production, for without money the home cannot be built. The average housewife wishes the farm to have the first consideration but this willingness often leads to unnecessary prolonging of the time when the home may be modernized. One is apt to become content to trudge along in the old rut. However, since economic conditions have reached their present state, the dream of many farm people is being realized. There is a precaution which has proved to be one which needs the thoughtful consideration of parents niv 'iftiua wufm modern com " T "miv ijv. uiuen i otter fn nnrnnts iti'ct n lit? mnnniF M . . IOF nven- uiviii ivf warn www mv. mw-fj in vriglll llgut S Qr jU country than to suffer the loss of the youth from th farm homes just because of the human desire of th young and care-free to seek pleasure. After all the 0nl real, true happiness is in the home. Win not soe J some money to insure contentment and keen th v?.. folks on the farm? 1 m youn Always Advancing WE NO longer have the feeling that because count less numbers of families lived their lifetime with out these conveniences that we should not niorfernj Older generations had the best that was offered in their time, or if they did not have it they were striving for it Any new touch that would make the log cabin a more enjoyable place in which to live was added icon u possible. The fact that former generation did not have kerosene lamps did not keep our grandparents from using them as soon as they could ifford to dis pose of the candle. Modern machinery has l ine more than anything else to make people realize the true value of labor-saving devices. The farmer got his land ready for the crops when he had to walk behind his plow; and his grandfather got his work done when he had to depend on oxen ; but when hore and riding plows came how much easier it was! Much more could be accomplished in a day's time and with less ened fatigue. Now farmers who use a tractor frequently wonder how crops were ever put in and harvested without power machinery. The same thing is true with the housewives. The past generations were accustomed to do the washing at the creek by rubbing the dirt from the clothes on stone slabs, but when the washtub and washboard made their appearance they were universally adopted because the work was done so much easier and better. And now the w .men who use power-driven washing machines wonder how thev ever stood the old back-breaking methods. These ex periences have broadened the minds of the parents of today and they wish their children to have and to know the value of every piece of apparatus that will save them muscular energy and time. A better, splendid understanding of ROOM and a larger mindedness concerning the comforts of ideal home life, aided by the conveniences of running water, modern methods of heating, lighting, and p. -wer-driven household appliances, have made the farm an ideal place on which to build the permanent home. All Cuba Is Rolling in Wealth consumption in America, we learn that in 1850 with a per capita circulation of money of $19.41 the annual per capita consumption of sugar was 39.46 pounds. Thirty years later, with a money circulation of $26.93 the increase in consumption had jumped to 58.91 pounds, and in 1914 with a per capita circulation of money of $35.18 the sugar consumption for every man, woman and child in the United States had gone to 84.29 pounds. Since then the increase has been pro gressive. S'ine twenty years after the discovery of Cuba by Columbus, Spain sent sugar cane to the island for ex perimental planting. The splendid quality of Cuba's soil soon was revealed and for a few years sugar cane planting thrived, only to be beaten down during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when the Spanish Government looked askance at all agricultural pursuits. The raising of sugar cane was forbidden and it was not until 1772 that the restrictions were removed. Other discouragements entered into the production of sugar during the following century, and it was not until after Cuba had been freed of the Spanish yoke that production became unhampered. Production in 1897 was 212,051 tons, and in 1901 it had jumped to 612,775 tons. The million-ton mark was reached in 1903 and the two-million-ton record achieved in 1913. The estimate for this year's cutting is placed most conservatively at nearly four million and a half tons. Without the introduction of American capital, American large-scale business methods and Ameri can centralization of effort, it is doubtful whether Cuba today would be experiencing the prosperity that has come to her. Whereas in 1870 there were no fewer than one thousand small sugar factories on the island, there are today fewer than 200, all highly developed and operated with the most modern and efficient ma chinery. There is waste, however, in the planting, and this has been entirely due to the fact that the richness of the soil has made it unnecessary for the planters to exert themselves to raise bumper crop There is always a bumper crop in Cuba, ind the cli matic conditions are such that the island enjojl rais ing and cutting advantages that obtain n .here else. The cane is grown during the rainy season and is cut during the dry season, and by the time th cutting is finished the new crop is out of the soil, well along toward maturity. And now Cuba has come into her vn. With foodstuffs never so high as they are today, and with rents skyward, the Cuban is smiling, for there is still a most comfortable surplus. Eggs are ten centl each, beef averages a dollar a pound, butter is al the same figure, bacon runs from eighty to ninety cents a pound, and at times flour has been as high as fift) cents a pound, although the present figure is twenty cents. Hut the Cuban sees prosperity for many years to come. The Sugar Board and High Prices Concluded from page 9 regular and sufficient supply of sugar to the people of the United States at a reasonable price. "You remember the situation at that time, with England, France and Italy on sugar rations and ihip scarcity making whatever surplus there was in Java unavailable. Yet, notwithstanding that, had there been any expectation that hostilities would cease in November, 1918, there would have been no Equaliza tion Board, no purchase of the Cuban sugar crop en bloc, and no government control of the commodity during 1919. Assuming then that the war would carry on at least through the summer of 1919, the Board proceeded to act. Negotiations were entered into with tin commission sent by the President of Cuba for the purchase of the Cuban crop, and while these negotia tions were under way, the Board held conferences with the representatives of domestic producers of both beet and cane sugar, as one of the purposes of the Board was to equalize the price of sugar to consumers in the United States, so far as it was possible. "The price at which the Cuban Commission offered their crop was $5.60 per 100 pounds, f. o. b. the north ports of Cuba, for 96 degree test, raw sugar, and this price it was claimed would be required if Cuban planters were to be satisfied and production main tained. The majority of the Board felt that $5 5 ought to be sufficient, and the Cuban Commission returned to Cuba for further consideration. The representatives of the beet sugar industry presented figures of costs showing that 9 cents per pound for granulated 8.82 cents net cashwould be required if beet farmers were to remain satisfied and production maintained, while the Louisiana cane people claimed that 10 cents per pound was necessary to sustain production with them. Hawaii was satisfied with the price made by the beet sugar interests and Porto Rico felt that whatever price basis was estah hshed which would be suitable for the beet sugar and Hawaiian industry would be fair for the industry Porto Rico. "It was obvious, therefore, that a price of 9 cents per pound for granulated sugar should agreed upon if domestic production was to be main tained. The situation in Cuba, however, offered sorn contrasts, for although the costs were increasing tner also, there had not been the general advance that t rest of the world was experiencing. After so further negotiations with the Cubans, the purcm. their crop was concluded, September U 191S, n . basis of $5.50 f. o. b. north ports of Cuba. $545 sow !OrtS. aTlrf Q11 anrnnmant ,,, .(.. In US hirh the govern - hkivviiiv.111 iii.hu ul .. nf r r mm . . . t Ol'1- l" P- . AAA merits of England, France and Italy were to J? third of the crop, which was estimated at 4,WJ tons, and the United States was to get two -thirds.