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The Great Lakes and Their Place in World Commerce By HORACE G. GARDNER PRKSIDKNT GRFAT I.AKKS ST. LAWRBNCK TIDKWATKR ASSOCIATION Till commerce of the Wctl has outgrown its trans portation facilities. To say that is to repeat a truism. It is made evident by the continual .scries of freight blockades and embargoes extending over a term oi fears and growing more and more acute. At the iam time the West has passed the pioneer stage, has emerged from (He period when it was dependent upon extractive industry, and is ready now for a great industrial development if only transportation facilities will permit The foundation for such a transportation structure lies before Ul in the Great Lakes system, an inland sys tem upon which a movement of ninety million tons a vear oi inland commerce has already been built up. The extension of this unique system of inland water ways to the ocean will accomplish all that is desired for the Middle West: first, in restoring the equilibrium to our unbalanced system of transportation and so re lieving the continuous blockade; and second, by giving the communities bordering on the lakes and the great producing region back of them the opportunity which is their right to take part in the commerce of the world and to work out their own salvation according to their native energy and resources. It is a right which is only potential as long as the Great Lakes are land locked. It is an opportunity which is frustrated as long as their commerce must be forced through the narrow tunnel between the foot of lake navigation and the seaboard. A way by which ships can pass back and forth be tween lakes and ocean is the one solution. Whatever assistance may be given by a barge canal and I have no inclination to disparage that as an instrument of traffic- n will not solve this problem. It leaves western comimrco still burdened by the cost of transfer from vessel to barge, and if the goods are to be exported, a second transfer from barge to vessel, and the canal has, after all, limited capacity. Tin most assistance that can be given by a barge canal is no more than could be obtained by adding mother pair of tracks between the foot of lake naviga tion and the seaboard. The cost of transfer is a more serious objection. Recent studies by leading engineers show that the terminal cost is the determining factor in transporta tion. The papers by Charles Whiting Baker, editor of the Engineering News Record, go very thoroughly into that. Mr. Baker points out that "terminal expenses have become today the chief factor in transportation cost everywhere, save in very long distance shipments. The cost of breaking bulk and of terminal handling is the bu item in transportation costs today, while the cost of the actual transport per mile by either rail or water has sunk to an exceedingly small amount." To subject western commerce to cost of transfer either by rail or by barge canal it to deny the right of western communities to realize their economic DOS sibilities. A shipway between the lakes and the ocean is the one adequate solution. The St. Lawrence offers the one practical route for a shipway to the sea. It is the logical and natural route. It is the route which can be improved at the least expense. It offers DO difficulties in maintaining a water supply. To other routes that have been pro posed, objections have been made that the cost would be prohibitive, the engineering difficulties, enormous, and the water supply for the summit level difficult to maintain. In one instance it has been proposed that the water shall be pumped from Lake Ontario to feed the canal, and that the same water shall be used to de velop an enormous water power. Not all the plans are so fantastic as that, but every project for a ship channel across country has some fatal weakness. A ship canal of any extended length is inherently impossible for traffic. Ordinary vessel speed is about twelve miles an hour. The lake carriers run from Chicago to Buffalo in three days, nearly nine hundred miles. From Duluth to Buffalo, nearly a thousand miles, the lake run is made inside of four days. In a restricted channel, vessel speed must be throttled down to six miles an hour. At bends or at meeting points speed must be further reduced to four miles. In fact four miles an hour is the limit in any but the widest reaches of a canal system. A vessel whose time is worth $2,000 a day cannot afford to dawdle through a long canal at that rate. The projectors of the New York state barge canal satisfied themselves upon that point so completely that, without regard to cost or engineering difficulties, they rejected the idea of a ship canal across New York on the ground that if it were built it would not be used by ships. For this reason also, the Canadians prac tically abandoned the Georgian Bay route. The conspicuous merit of the Great Lakes-St. Law rence chain of communication is that it has ample sea room from the head of lake navigation to the ocean, except in a very few connecting passages. From Lake Superior to the foot of Lake Erie there is only ten miles of confined channel and only a few stretches between Lake Huron and Lake Krie where the channel is at all restricted. From Chicago to the foot of Lake Krie there is no confined channel and only slight modi fication of ordinary vessel speed in the Detroit River and St. Clair Flats. Between Lake Krie and Lake On tario there will be. when the Xew Welland is finished, (C) M alien, Chico H. C. GARDNER lrs than 25 miles oi confined channel. Between Lake Ontario and the ocean there will he again something lesi than 25 miles of confined channel. The rest of the course vessels may make without hesitation or de lay, moving as freely as they do in tin- boundless waters of the sea. In fact, the entire distance in which a vessel must move through confined channels between the head of lake navigation and the ocean is somewhat less than the artificial channels of the River Kibe between the North Sea and the great port of Hamburg, hardly more than the artificial channel which extends the port of Liverpool to the inland city of Manchester. What we advocate is not a canal but such rectifica tion of the St. Lawrence as will drown the rapids and. with no more delay than is necessitated by the passage of the locks at the Soo, permit free vessel movement between the lakes and the ocean. When that has been done the communities bordering the lakes and the great producing region back of them will have ample outlet for their commodities. And the volume of traffic will not be hampered by the insufficiency of regular line VCSSell during rush periods. All the fleets of the seven seas will be avail able. The system of transportation is thus ffexible infinitely beyond the capacity of a railroad or canal which cannot increase and reduce its rolling stock or floating equipment at will. Of even wider significance is the ability of these communities that border the lakes to draw raw materials from any part oi the world for the creation of manufactured commodities to be distributed along short transportation lines for the con sumption of this region whose production is adding so greatly to the world's wealth. Religion, Not Politics, Won for Raspoutine U5SC I - T Brussels, Belgium. Mar., 1920. aTMIK Truth About the Russian Imperial Fam- ilv" is the title of a brochure to be published soon by V. M. Roudnieff, substitute for the public pros ecutor of the tribunal of Ekaterinoslav, who was de tached by order of Kerensky from a commission to inquire into abuses committed by former ministers and oi vials, and charged especially to conduct the in vest, it ion of the royal family. Numerous have been the accounts of the private life w tli Linperor and his consort. Many are devoid of truth and circulated merely for gain. The calumnies, that are a blot on the memory of Marie Antoinette and thers that were circulated for the popular reading public ol their time, are repeated in a more recent age, and historians of the future as of the past will have the task of trying to absolve these personages. Xo one could be better qualified than M. Roudnieff to clarify m incident of Raspoutine. He has done so. He has Wade clear other things. He finished his task. It ended n h admiration and respect for the unfortunate Czar and ( arina. Here is what the man who was eestmed to be the accuser of the royal family has to say : 3 Being assistant to the prosecutor of the arron 'SMmrnt oi Kkaterinoslav, I was called on March 11, p b order of Minister of Justice Kerensky, at 'rad. to the extraordinary Inquiry commission arged with investigating abuses committed by minis ers, superior chiefs and high officials of the former administration esn ii etr.Krad, working on this commission, I was sn liy .charKed with seeking the sources of irre tion f J" m,ences at the imperial court. This sec- irr,. c , commission was named 'Inquiry into the Kroup of facts caM occnlt inmKM1ccs . I lie Wnrlr r( ! 1 ii :i ,L. ctiH f ",c commission extended mini wc the i KUs!'.1917- At this time I sent a report at reason 7J 1 announced mv resignation. mt s.m, aWas the effo!"t of the president of the commis sion i -..vii ui me wrcMunu oi mc cuiiuina- crimmal atturnv Uotsrarttit, to have me act " a Powers of' situation as delegate, having the a commissary of inquiry, gave me the right the Czarina's Friendship to make any investigation where circumstances war ranted, and to question those guilty, etc. "With the idea of throwing light completely and impartially on the actions of all persons designated, either in the press or by public rumor. I examined all the archives of the winter palace, the palaces of Tsarskoe-Selo and Pcterhof. the grand dukes and the papers found at the time of the investigations at the homes of Bishop Harnabe, Countess C. C. IgnatiefF. Doctor BadmaefT, B. R. Voeikoff and other dignitaries of the court. "During the inquiry special attention was given to the persons and actions of G. K. Raspoutine and Madame Viroubova as well as the relations existing between the imperial family and the cvurt of Berlin." M. Roudnieff says he had great presumption against Raspoutine but "a very careful and impartial investiga tion" obliged him to admit that the rumors and news paper stories were far from the truth. He dors not deny that he had influence at the court and continues: "Let us admit it according to all the documents ex amined. Tt is certain he exercised a very great in fluence over the imperial family and that the primary cause of influence of Raspoutine at the court was the profound religious sentiment of their majesties and their sincere conviction of the righteousness of Ras poutine. the unique advocate of the Czar, his family and of Russia before God." M. Roudnieff affirms that he found nothing in Mlp port of the assertion that Raspoutine was the center of German espionage in Russia. The Czar's friendship for France was proved on many occasions and reports to the contrary are regarded as revolutionary calumnies. After having spent months in reading letters and docu ments and questioning those who lived in the intimacy of the court. M Roudnieff writes: "The moral figure of the Czarina Alexandra Foc dorovna appeared clearly in the correspondence with the Camr and with Mine. Viroubova. This correspond encc in French and English Wftl marked by great faff for her husband and children. The Czarina occupied herself personally with the education and instruction of their chil dren, with the exception of quite special branches. In this correspondence the Czarina mentions that the children must not be spoiled by presents nor should the passion for luxury be en couraged. "The correspondence at the same time bears the imprint of great religious feeling. Often in these let ters to her husband, the Czarina describes the im pressions felt during religious services which she at tended and speaks frequently of her entire satisfaction and moral repose after an ardent prayer. "It is to be noted that in all this voluminous cor respondence there is hardly any allusion to politics. The correspondence has an intimate and familiar char acter. The passages in these letters in which Ras poutine is mentioned enlighten sufficiently as to the relations of the C arina and this man. She considers him as a preacher bringing the word of God, as a prophet praying sincerely for the royal family. In all this correspondence which covers nearly ten years, I found no trace of any letter written in German. I found out. moreover, on questioning persons admitted to court that long before the war the German language was not used. "Regarding the reports circulated on the subject of the exclusive tnpat hy tor the Germans and the pres ence in the imperial apartments of a wireless apparatus in communication with Berlin, I personally investi gated very carefully in the royal apartments and found nothing o! the kind nor any trace of any relations with the Germans. "As to reports of exclusive benevolence regarding German wounded, I was able to find that the attention shown by the Czarina toward the German prisoners and wounded was no greater than that shown the Russian wounded Because of the heart trouble of the Czarina, the family of the Czar led a retired life. This necessarily developed in the Czarina the religious sentiment and home life. It finished by becoming pre dominant with her. This entirely religious inclination vrai the s,,le cause of her veneration for Raspoutine."