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The Canadian Representative at Washington SIR GEORGE FOSTER, the Acting Premier of Canada, recently made the interesting announce ment in the Federal House at Ottawa that the Fritish and Canadian governments have concluded an utaflffement whereby Canadian interests at Washington a he provided with more satisfactory representa tion than hitherto has been available. Until a very recent date if Ottawa wished to trans it business with Washington, it had to operate by a most roundabout route through the Governor-General f Canada, who communicated the business to the British Colonial Office. The latter passed it on to the Foreign Office, who then communicated with the Brit ish Embassy at Washington, and at length after many weary weeks the United States Government was reached. During the later stages of the war many ot these antiquated formalities were relaxed and there was a certain measure of direct intercourse between Ottawa and Washington, but in the eyes of the British official hierarchy it was quite improper. However, Canadian national sentiment has thrived greatly since 1914. The exploits of the Canadian army and the magnitude of the national war effort have roused in the people a new sense of confidence and pride and it is generally agreed that there is no department of national life which Canadians cannot manage for themselves better than other people can manage for them. Canada and the other British dominions occupy strangely anomalous positions. They are national states in strength and self -consciousness but in form and status are still colonial dependencies. Britain lost her first empire by the fatal folly of George V and Lord North, and a hundred years ago apart from her Indian holdings and several tropical islands, she could point to only a few scattered settlements in the vast terri tory which ic had brought under her flag. The colonists were engaged in a desperate struggle with the wilderness; they were absolutely under the control of Downing Street ; their governors were mostly general! with bad livers and tempers, and their of nciall were the needy scions of aristocratic families. Their atYairs were invariably managed in the interests of the mother country and in return British taxpayers were good enough to bear the cost of their defense. The wishes of the colonists were rarely consulted, and engaged as the latter were in an absorbing conflict with nature, they had scant time for political thought and organization. But when the pioneers had surmounted their worst struggles and settlement became thicker, they became conscious of their disabilities and the old British sense of liberty asserted itself. There came a political awak ening and a demand for responsible government. It renuired an actual rebellion in Canada, in 1M7, headed by Wil liam Lyon Mackenzie, grand lather of Mackenzie King, the present leader of Canadian Lib erals, to bring matters to a head. The rebellion was suppressed but it educated the British Govern ment to the fact that unless timely changes were made their later empire would go the way of the first. The steps were gradual ; first, the Dominions began to make their own financial arrangements and tariffs; next, they assumed responsibility for their own de fense ; they began later on to regulate their immigration pol icy and to negotiate treaties through their own plenipoten tiaries, as in the case of the Taft Kiclding reciprocity pact of 1911. Other milestones of constitu tional development were passed during the war years. The Canadian premier and other min isters were accorded places in the Imperial War Cabinet on a parity with British ministers and Canada was accorded separate representation at the Peace Con ference and in the League of Nations. American Senators and others who saw in this step a Machiavellian scheme on the part of the British statesmen to secure additional votes for the British people err profoundly. The hierarchy of the British foreign Office made no secret of their Confidence in tin ir rnnnritv to look after the foreign affairs i the Dominions and it WAS only the determined in ttltence f Sir Hubert Borden and General Smuts which ?W the right of separate representation. l-.'-t September one of the Canadian delegates, Mr. Sifton, publicly stated in the House at Ottawa that Wrate representation was seemed for the Dominions only because of the opposition of the most con servative elements in Britain. If the old principle Ol pting the Dominions what powers they wanted had not JJjn adhered to, the Dominion delegates would prob ity have shaken the dust of Paris off their feet and a serious crisis would have arisen. But the British lrnpenahsts do not like these new claims of the Do minions. They hanker after some form of an Im perial centralized Parliament, which will give them a cnance of controlling the daughter states. I he supporters of Imperial Federation are cherish ,n8 an impossible dream. It has been repudiated by ail the responsible statesmen in the Dominions and any government which proposed it would have no chance 01 ,urvval. The ties of common laws, traditions, cus- By J. A. STEVENSON toms and language between Britain and her daughter states are strong and deep, but so intense is the new national consciousness in each of them that they will resolutely decline to enter into any binding political arrangements which might hamper their freedom of action. In an Imnerial Par liament the dominating ma jority for many years would be drawn from the mother country. So far from showing a willingness to continue in a state of indefinite subordi nation, the Canadian people are anxious to extend their autonomous powers, and the appointment of a special Canadian minister at Wash ington is a step in this di rection. He will take eharge of ordinary Ca nadian affairs and will act as the normal channel of communication between the Canadian and American governments in matters solely pertaining to Canada, kwlsHte MP v NEWTON W. LOWELL SIR ROBERT BORDEN receiving his instructions from and reporting di rect to the Cabinet at Ottawa. In the absence of the British Ambas sador, the Canadian min ister will automatically assume charge of the British embassy and at tend to Imperial as well as Canadian interests. Though Sir George Fos ter took pains to assert that the step did not af fect the diplomatic unity of the British Common wealth, yet it obviously constitutes a far-reaching innovation and it will not be popular in Im perialist circles in Kng land where it will be asked if this sort of thing will not end in complete independence. There is no criticism in Canada of the step itself but objection has been raised both inside and outside Parliament to the fact that this im portant departure was arranged by secret nego tiations between the British and Canadian governments and Parliament was not consulted. . . But, generally speaking, the new1 ministry meets a growing desire on the part of the Canadian people Often in the past it has been brought home to them that however brilliant and capable the staff of the British embassy might be, they were always Englishmen and primarily concerned with English interests. The charge was often brought that they were always ready to sac rifice Canadian interests to pacify the American btate Department and the memory of the Alaska boundary decision when Lord Alverstone, the British representa tive voted with the American delegates against the Canadian claims, still rankles. Again during the war the British Government deliberately preferred to in terpret its case through its own emissaries rather than through Canadians whose services were proffered and who had an infinitely better acquaintance with America and her viewpoint. , The need for easy and direct relations between the two countries was never greater. The total volume of C. A. MAGRATH Chairman ol the Canadian Section of the International Waterways Commission. trade between Canada and the United States was in the last fiscal year twice as much as the commerce between Great Britain and Canada and for the first time in many years Canada exported more goods to the United States than to the mother country. She is dependent on her southern neighbor for large quantities of coal and coke to supply her central areas as well as much raw material for industries which are coalless. Amer icans, on the other hand, are more and more becoming dependent on Canada for their supplies of newsprint and pulpwood and the move which Senator Underwood has initiated to secure the abrogation of the restrictions of the Canadian provinces upon the export of pulpwood grown on crown lands is re garded as a provocative in terference with the domestic affairs of another country and might, if pressed, give rise to a delicate situation. Water rights on the rivers and streams which form or crovs the international boun dary give rise to continual disputes in regard to water power and irrigation schemes. In the near future, through the acquisition of the Grand Trunk Railway and its sub sidiaries, the Canadian Gov ernment will own a large rail way mileage under the Stars and Stripes, and its opera tion may give rise to com plicated problems. There is a continual ex odus of American farmers northward to the cheaper lands of the Canadian North west and a counter exodus southward of people who dislike the Canadian winter or want a change of oc cupation or residence. In fact the balance in migra tion is in favor of the United States who in the last eleven years received almost 200,000 more people from Canada than they sent to her. But the sense of the deep community of interest between the two countries is daily growing and proofs arc visible on every side. The American Federation of Labor, which has the allegiance of most Canadian unions, meets in Montreal on June 7, and on May 12 representatives of the Canadian Council of Agriculture and the National Board of Farm Organizations of the United States met in Chicago to discuss the establish ment of an international board of agriculture. Under such conditions, need of direct diplomatic intercourse between the two great democracies of North America has become absolutely imperative. There is general agreement in Canada that she must not be represented in this experiment by anybody of inferior standing or quality. The name of Sir Charles Gordon, a leading manufacturer and financier of Montreal who had charge of the Canadian Mission at Washington during the war, receives wide support in business circles but he has had no political experience and would probably be unwilling to give up his very extensive business enterprises for a diplomatic career. Sir J. D. Hazen, the Chief Justice of New Bruns wick, who was Minister of Marine and Fisheries in the first Borden Cabinet, has some supporters but his abilities and standing are scarcely commensurate with the post. A generally acceptable selection would be Mr. C. A. Magrath, the senior Canadian representative on the Joint International Commission. Mr. Magrath has had peculiar experience for the position ; he had a success ful business career as manager of the Southern Al berta Irrigation Company and served for a term as a Conservative member of the House of Commons. If he had stayed in politics he would long ago have been in the Dominion Cabinet. But his views were in ad vance of his party and he preferred the independence of his present position. He enjoys general popularity and esteem in Canada and did excellent service during the war as Fuel Controller for Canada. This business as well as his duties on the Joint Commission have made him a frequent visitor at Washington and he has a first class knowledge of the United States. But Canada may be able to send an even more il lustrious personage as her first Minister to Washington. Sir Robert Borden, the Canadian Premier, has just re turned to Ottawa after a prolonged holiday at southern health resorts, where he was trying to recover from a serious breakdown in health, the result of his exertions during the war. While he is much improved by hi rest, it is considered doubtful if his physicians will allow him to resume the arduous duties of the premier ship. If he is compelled or decides to retire, an effort will probably be made to induce him to inaugurate the Canadian Ministry at Washington and as he is by no means an old man, he may be willing to accept it. While his domestic policy does not command universal approval, all parties have confidence in the soundness of his views upon foreign affairs and his appointment will be acclaimed as exceedingly satisfactory. It is understood that he was offered the British embassy in 1919 but declined to accept it. If he went to Wash ington now the British Government would probably pay him the compliment of withdrawing Sir Auckland Geddcs and entrusting all their interests to his ex perienced supervision.