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Quakeress Begins, Another Ends Votes Fight Campaign for Suffrage Amendment Started by Susan B. Anthony Carried to Victory by Alice Paul When Tennessee Ratines STARTED by a Quaker girl; finished by a Quaker girl! That's the strangely romantic history of the suffrage amendment to the Constitution of the United States. All of this possibly proves that the oft-repeated proverbial demureiuss of Quaker maidens may run true to ancient form when it comes to a case of springtime courtship, but that it has no place in their mental determination when they feel that great national principles arc mvoiveu. ticu an Perhaps it's time we stopped referring to some par llar person as having the "tenacity of a bulldog," Q By H. O. BISHOP for standing by her principles. This occurred in 1872 when she sought to test the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments by casting a ballot at the state and con gressional elections at her home town. She was indicted and a fine imposed for the offense. Instead of paying the fine she merely looked the judge in the eye and defiantly said : "May it please your honor, I will never pay a dollar of your unjust penalty and I shall earnestly and persistently continue to urge all women to the practical recognition of the old revolutionary maxim that resistance to tyranny is obedience to God." Thp Federal miffratrp amrnrlmpnt Hrnfterf hv Miss Anthony, in 1875, introduced into Congress in 1878, and finally passed in 1919, reads: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." In the early days of her lecturing Miss Anthony arrayed herself in bloomers, but soon discarded them for the reason that they attracted more at tention than the subject under discussion. The idea of tying up with neither Democratic nor Republican party originated with Miss An thony, her plan being to root for the Democrats in any state where they cast fond glances suffrage ward, and to boost for the Republicans in other states if they manifested any fondness toward ballots for women. The same effective prin ciple of campaigning was later adopted with remarkable success by the Anti-Saloon League. The American Federation of Labor, under the leadership of Samuel Gompers, is planning to follow the same idea in the coming campaign. The Republicans were the first to advocate equal suffrage. In their platform in 1872, they inserted this mild plank so mild as to be not more than a board : "The Republican party is mindful of its obligations to the loyal women .UiUI Wf n J - OF id say instead : "They have the tenacity of a linker." In the light of present-day events it would ,-n miirh more exnressive. JCll" 1 Susan Bromwell Anthony was the Quakeress who drafted the suffrage amend- . 1 07C 1C - mem in ioi j tj iai s ago and pedicted its success in 1920. Alice Paul is the Quaker ess who is credited with the never-say-die style of political generalship which has recently made the Anthony Amend ment a part of the Constitu tion of the United States. Miss Anthony was as much of a fighting Quaker in her day as Alexander Mitch ell Palmer, Attorney General, is credited with being today. Mr. Palmer, it will be recalled, de clined the appointment of Secretary of War, tendered by President Wilson, on the ground that his religion was against war. Later he was an aspirant for the big job of Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States. Evidently the Quaker religion does not object to big jobs of fighting; such as, lead ing the army and navy or putting over a Con stitutional amendment. And when it comes to double A, triple X. dye d-in-the-w o o 1 and fight-it-to-a-finish brand of militancy, neither Miss Anthony nor Mr. Palmer ever displayed better staying qualities than Alice Paul. Miss Anthony was born in Massachusetts just a hundred years ago. When she was six years of age, the family, apparently wearied of looking at and hearing about Plymouth Rock, moved to Washington County, New York. Twenty years later they moved to Rochester, in the same state. Between the advertising received through Miss Anthony and a kodak factory, Rochester has succeeded in becoming one of the best-known cities in the world. When seventeen, Miss Anthony taught school at a salary of $1.50 weekly This munificent income was all velvet, as it was the custom in those days for teachers to "board .round" among the parents of the pu pils. The probabilities are that her salary ot that day had as great or greater purchasing power as some of the salaries of public school teachers today. Had it not been for the sar casm of the male chairman of a temperance convey tion held at Albany, New York in 1852, it Ple that the Quaker ire of Miss Anthony would alwas have remained calm and peaceful and she would have continued teaching school or married some likely young chap and lived serenely and demurely ejff alter instead of starting a suffrage rumpus that s c,s" many gray hairs to sprout on the heads of Democratic and Republican leaders in this good year ot ivu. She was attending the convention of the ons oi Temperance as a delegate from the daughters ot Temperance of Rochester. During one of the tense periods of discussion, Miss Anthony rose to . ner teci to speak on a motion before the house. To her utter surprise the chairman leaned forward over the speaK er's table and in red-faced anger announced that tne sisters were not invited there to speak but to listen and to learn." M ... . Right there is where that old boy spilled the beans and they have never been picked up since, as a result of his bull-headed ruling, equal suffrage soon became a live political issue and has been getting livelier ever since. Iwo years later jm activitv rui1tr1 in ciifTracrr convention in every county in New York. . . , she was graduated from Swartnmore at A She attempted to have the vote given to women at scho . received degree, of ;M. A and Ph . O. "ic ume tne Negroes were entrancing, - , thc university oi rennsyi-i. zzl to wait a while as "that was the Negroes hour. Lthering of this crop of education, she went to Lon- Susan Anthony was the first woman to be arrested gatneri 8 (C) Harris & Ewing MISS ALICE PAUL The Quaker f irl who gencraled the job of paatind and ratifying the suffrage amendment. Sl SUSAN BROMWELL ANTHONY The Quakereaa who etarted the movement for a suffrage amendment. of America for their noble devotion to the cause of freedom; their admission to wider fields of usefulness is received with satisfaction ; and the honest demands of any class of citizens for equal rights should be treated with respectful consideration. In an effort to "play both ends against the mid dle,' Miss Anthony prepared a letter for the New York World "calling upon the Democrats to adopt a woman suffrage plank if they did not wish to compel the women of the country to work for the success of the Republican ticket." Miss Anthony went to her reward in 1906. It was in 1913 that Alice Paul made her appear ance at Washington, D. C, and started to smash staid traditions into smithereens. Old-time politicians foon commenced referring to her as 'that darn SSaWfH from Jersey who is the smoothest poli tician in the countir.; wh.rnme .definite spot been getting Z otUM having selected it iss Anthony s on the map as a 3 years ago. g being held as her b,r hptace. wh. cn p Qua school. She was graauaicu iw - twenty, and later received degrees of.M. A- and Ph a fthe University oi" don to prepare a thesis on the position of women and to study economics. While in London she did settle ment work and assisted in the suffrage campaign in England. Later she engaged in settlement work in New York. When Alice Paul arrived in Washington in 1913, she came without money, without influence, armed only with the conviction that the time had come to win. Beginning with a small basement office, with a few ardent followers who did everything from making street corner speeches to licking stamps, she built up a nation-wide organization of women, with branches and officers in every state, bound together by the pledge to regard "woman suffrage as the foremost political issue of the day, supporting it irrespective of the in terests of any political party." So effective was Miss Paul's leadership that within seven years every political party in thc country had in cluded in its platform an equal suffrage plank. Presi dent Wilson had publicly appealed for the passage of an amendment as "a vitally necessary war measure," and the amendment had been passed by both houses of Congress and ratified by many states. Her methods of calling the attention of the coun try to the administration's responsibility were novel and effective. She organized the first suffrage parade ever held in Washington ; she organized a suffrage trans continental trip, suffrage specials and suffrage picketing. She took part in all these demonstrations, helping to prepare even minute details and going with her fol lowers to jail when the authorities attempted to put a quietus on their activities. Miss Paul was sentenced to terms ranging from ten days to six months. She went on many hunger strikes while in jail and had to be forcibly fed. Miss Paul was so determined to put over suffrage that in the early days of her Washington activities she went without a new dress and noon lunches for three years, devoting all her spare change to the work of the cause. When she does treat herself to a new dress it is generally of a purple hue. Her sole relaxation is sitting on a bench in his torical Lafayette Park, opposite the White House, where she divides her time between reading and feed ing the pigeons, squirrels and birds which have come to know her so well. They perch on her lap and shoulders while she happily dips deep into her hand bag for peanuts and other dainties dear to the ap petites of little park pets. The next big job ahead for Miss Paul is the stag ing of a convention of the woman's party to decide up on the policy of the future. The proceedings of that convention will be of more than passing interest. Foolish are those who think the suffragist ladies are going to be content with the mere privilege of voting ! You can bet your shoes and victrola that it will be no time until they will be demanding a fifty-fifty di vision of all public offices from aldermen to cabinet officers. And why shouldn't they? The Tennessee ratification of the suffrage amend ment leaves only one bothersome obstacle between woman and the happy casting of a ballot telling her age. Either the state legislatures will have to revise the laws on that subject or permit the poll tax collectors or registrars to use the following scheme which any woman will readily admit out-ouijas the ouija: Quietly hand a small sheet of paper to the lady desiring to vote and ask her to put down the number of the month in which she was born, then to multiply it Dy two, then add five, then to multiply it by 50. than to add her age, then to subtract 365, then to add 115, and then to hand back the re sult. The two figures to the right will be her age, and the remainder the month of her birth. For example, the amount is 840 : She is 40 years old, and was born in the eighth month Ausrust. To such of the fair voters as might have become a trifle rusty in the annoying art of multiplying, adding and subtracting, the election official could hand this table of figures gently requesting her to indi cate in which column or columns her age is contained, and by adding together the figures at the top of the col umns in which her age is found, the great secret would be revealed without the lady uttering a single word. Thus, suppose her age be 26, you will find that number in the second, fourth and fifth columns. Here is the wonderful mystic table: 1 3 5 7 9 11 8 16 32 9 17 33 18 34 19 35 10 11 10 12 12 20 36 11 13 13 21 37 U 14 14 14 22 38 15 15 15 15 23 39 17 18 20 24 24 40 19 19 21 25 25 41 21 22 22 26 26 42 23 23 23 27 27 A3 25 26 28 28 28 44 27 27 29 29 29 45 29 30 30 30 30 46 33 34 36 40 48 48 35 35 37 41 49 49 37 38 38 42 50 50 39 39 39 43 51 51 41 42 44 44 52 52 43 43 45 45 53 53 45 46 46 46 54 54 47 47 47 47 55 55 49 51 53 55 50 52 56 56 56 51 53 57 57 57 54 54 58 58 58 55 55 59 59 59 57 58 60 60 60 60 59 59 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 63 31 31 31 31 31 4 This table does not appJy to ladies who are over 63, it being assumed that whenthey reach that interesting and worth-while age that they will be proud to tell it to anybody.