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All England One Great Laboratory O Manchester, England. October-! By Ma IV NE could record a good many injuries that the war has inflicted on us, not only material but i u ncrlv thine, a method ot oar- barism, whatever be the heroic virtues which "evokes, and it would be a miracle if the vices of the barbaric character, like greed and violence as a mean. -quisition. did not follow in its train But there arc some things on the credit side in this country and among them the recognition, bred at the time when our fate hung in the balance, of how much we stand to gain bv scientific research work into the principle, which lie at the base of every industry and the appli cation of them to the processes of manufacture. Of course there was a good deal of important re search work done in this country belore the war bin it was generally admitted that we were outdistanced in this respect bv both the United States and Germany. Xor was there much doubt about the reason. 1 he in dividual British manufacturer was too conservative in his ideas and too anxious to see quick returns on ex penditure to be enthusiastic about scientific research, especially in the broader forms in which he could not see the "likelihood of profit by the immediate applica tion to his own particular concern of the results to D? obtained. Further, there was on the part of the smaller concerns a sense of independence and a trade jealousy that prevented the co-operation which would have made possible research on a large scale. There were, of course, notable exceptions but on the whole we were in the habit of citing foreign example with regret and envy, especially the German research work in chem istry' which had built up a great dye industry, based originally on the discoveries of an Englishman, Perkins, but exploited and developed by foreign enterprise and insight. The war brought a change. The stimulus was of various kinds. The whole of the technical side of the war armaments, explosives, equipment called for the researcher and inventor and forced both the govern ment itself and private enterprise in state service into volcanic activity. Commerce gave a similar impulse. England was shut off from many of the sources of supply for indispensable articles of use. She had to find the means of producing them herself during the war and she was inspired by the incentive that she might produce them afterward, in time of peace in stead of her rivals. Necessity and commercial ambi tion worked together. The government formed an important committee of our most distinguished men to direct and stimulate re search and placed 1,000,000 at its disposal for dis tribution among the research associations to be estab lished in the various industries. I am aware that $4. 000,000 or thereabouts will not seem to be a large sum to the imagination of a country where the bene factions of rich men to the cause of education are con ducted on a scale which puts all other peoples to shame, but it should be compared not with the greater that might be done but with the very much less than has been hitherto achieved among us. And the project is succeeding. Eighteen research associations have al ready been established. Some 2.500 firms have guar anteed them subscriptions for five years, during which they will be assisted by state funds. Some industries are raising a big fund of their own, like the linen trade and the cotton trade, which is aiming at a quarter of a million sterling. What sort of industries, it may be asked, are sufficiently wide-awake to join in this co operative research ? Among recent adherents are manu facturers of rubber and tires, motors and accessories, motorcycles and cycle cars, linen, glass, shale, oil, silk, cutlery, leather and pottery. Besides, in the cotton trade the formation of a very vigorous research association has been followed By W. P. GROZIER SStartml scholarships for .ran,,, su, g J in science and technology, partly unto the snne nru . of the research association of the mdustr. U I prm ciple. were ,t generally adopted by on nd urfrul st ,.nt,1H lav firmlv the foundation of future success in trTde. It is impossible to repeat too often the old tag that Knowledge is Power. 1 he manag r the Oldham cotton mill who has worked his way up from the status of a boy 'hand" has never yet been to understand that the existence and prosperity of the Lancashire cotton trade in home and for etfl n markets must depend on the scientific study of all i processes. If he is beginning to understand mm. I his idea of "education" is at last broadening ou t, it is a hippy sign both for the industry and the nation. Other' industries also are waking up. The Woolen Re search Association is establishing a small mill purely for the work of research on a manufacturing scale ; the cement and the glass industries are experimenting in a similar way with regard to furnace construction and fuel economv. The woolen and cotton trades hae established their own institutes; so has the linen m dustrv, which is experimenting near Belfast in the cul tivation of flax ; the glass and the cocoa, chocolate and jam trades are establishing their own research lab oratories. Such investigations may not have their re sults all at once, but assisted by the more fundamental research work, which is being done by other hands, re sults they will have eventually and those of great ad vantage to the industries. ... . This kind of research work, organized by the in dustries themselves, is only part of the present out burst of activity. The state committee, with a number of allied boards, carries on a large range of separate inquiries. One investigation which is typically im portant and well worth citing is the work of the Fuel Research Board, which has been investigating the question of fuel for motor transport a problem which is made more and more urgent by the great increase in motor traffic, the growing demand for commercial ve hicles and the rising price of petrol. The public is al ways talking of the possibility of some cheap substitute for petrol, of which we already need 2S0.000.000 gal lons a year and shall want more and more. The Fuel Research Board has investigated closely the possi bilities of power-alcohol as a substitute for petrol but with no conclusion that is cheering for the motor own er harassed by the constant rise in price. The price of petrol now is about 4s. 6d. The re search board says that power-alcohol for commercial purposes cannot be produced from any vegetable sub stances in this country because the supply is insuf ficient, and if it were not, the expense would be pro hibitive even the raw material for a gallon of spirit would cost 7s. in the case of barley, 8s. 6d. for potatoes and 3s. for mangoes. Besides, all such things, whether home-grown or imported, have a higher value of their own as foodstuffs. The board, however, has struck a most interesting line of investigation, of which in the future, near or distant, much may be heard. "In the tropical portions of the Empire there are vast quan tities of vegetation of rapid growth forming an enormous reservoir of the sun's radiant energy, af fording a practically inexhaustible source of supply of power-alcohol, if a cheap and simple process, either chemical or bacteriological, were available and could be applied commercially on a very large scale. Re- s.arch work in this.d.rection IMI M WH but it "SASTthe" research board refers us to coal PTAMffc would cos, jJejW.. At with gas. of course, is that o Kie containers ior im.u.i -- - . -i.n:.... ct'itt.mv in sninrifii tmns and cstab isliing nil"'" ,ua titv During the late stages o the war a M nanv motor vehicles were equipped ... this way but he reld i. g was always a difficulty and the UK f Ka . uel"Zs almost to have .appeared. It h I. ly to g o v again the price of petrol continues to r.e and ro ... . .l,lr onest on of fuel for motor 111 .1I1V fMIU H'S- 1 - . .. t. U " U nhvinnslv one ot those on which roc-u.. work is of most immediate use. But the activities of the government committee are multifarious. It makes grants to deserving students a the universities and to independent research workers and it aids the proper equipment of research labora tories The fuel board was impelled by the reports which it received of the use of pulverized coal in the United States to send over an investigator. His re port of what he saw has already gone to its second edition and the fuel board at once decided to establish a small pulverizing plant of the latest design for the purposes of its own experiments. That is a small but concrete illustration of the usefulness to industry of our new research organizations. Another region of inquiry is concerned with the composition and economical use of building materials a subject which has never before had the importance which it has now. when houses cannot be built because of the lack of bricks and bricklayers and every species of earth material is being tested and tried in the hope that it may prove to be cheap, easily handled and avail able in large quantities. Perhaps of even greater per manent importance from the national point of view are the inquiries into the means of preserving tish and meat, fruit and vegetables. Kven during the hardest times of the war, quantities of foodstuffs went to waste because of the present lack of knowledge of the means of preserving them and at any given moment the same is true today, as when, for instance, a glut of hsh is offered to the markets. As a first step a grant is being made to Cambridge University for the establishment of a low-temperature research station. To take one point only, it has hitherto been possible to preserve mutton by freezing, but not beef. The researches of the Food Investigation Board have now discovered a means of freezing beef also without damage, but the experiments have been small, and it remains to obtain results which can be applied on a large industrial scale. When that is done we shall have won an addition to our food re sources like that produced by the arrival of frozen mutton. The study of home-grown timbers, the commercial gas-cylinder, lubricants, the corrosion of metals, the atmospheres of deep and hot mines are among the many subjects of the new research. But it is needless to multiply instances further. I have said enough to show that both state and private industry have begun to awaken to the absolute need of research work if we are to keep abreast of our principal competitors. Industrial researchers and inventors we have always had: in systematic and organized inquiry we have been too backward. Whether we shall now achieve success depends on the sincerity and persistence of our devo tion to the task and of course also on the exertions of our rivals, about which your readers will know more than I. When an American Woman Can't Vote Concluded from page 3 few Russians and Swedes. Strangely quiet they all were while we waited a half hour, a "whole hour, and fifteen minutes more for the judge to arrive. A very busy man was he substituting for the reg ular judge away vacationing. When he came, he came with a clatter, his clerk following close behind genial fellow, that judge, fairly young and bald. ' It's a mistake for a young judge with a bald head to have a gurgling sense of humor. His judicial dignity is somehow gravely compromised. He reminded me of Humpty Dumpty. He took his seat facing us silent eager-eyed, rather tired-of -waiting would-be citizens' At his right, the clerk was by this time busily rustling SSKIfc aTnd ca.llin? out m a monotone: "Number 6437802, Jonassi Marconorazzi !" A shuffling of feet followed and Number 6437802, Jonassi Marconorazzi and his witnesses approached the stand. They were sworn in. The petitioner took the stand to the left of the judge. Now the examiner ceased his aimless wanderines about the ro,m, took his place before the judge He turned first to the witnesses. ' , "Your name, sir?" "Where were you born?" "Since what date have you known the petitioner ?" Ever since that date, during all that time, do you know him to have lived here, to be of good moral character and attached to the principles of the Con stitution of the United States?" Attention was then turned full force on the peti tioner himself. Poor soul, little he knew what was in store for him. His turbulent, volcanic self took pos" cxaTcr ,He snaPd ou que - tions. Of all the rudeness! H "Have you read the Constitution?" "Are you married?" "Living with your wife?" "Why not ?" "Who is Woodrow Wilson?" "Who are the Senators from California?" "Who makes the laws of San Francisco?" "If we got into a war with Italy and you had five brothers fighting in the Italian Army, would you fight for the United States?" "Sure?" "Ever been arrested?" "All right! Granted! Next!" The questions didn't sound so offensive, and each man had a somewhat different set hurled at him In deed they were not too offensive. It was the judge Sfff I UJ,0US- His e!bws on his desk, he rested his bald, fat, empty head in his hands-his good-natured face showing nothing but whole-hearted delight in the amusement he found in the applicant's answers. "Haw ! Haw ! Haw !" he would roa out and slap his clerk on the shoulder. Can you imarine greater discourtesy and rudeness? g were C u, continued. Numbers and names "u.ed J Ki, Tt th-,r ipUccs- Optioned, ridi cuiea, dismissed. The ridicu e was n direct nron speech The cruelty, the snobbery of it! It brouh 'w.Tl 3 "rtoon of Tony Sarg" envied We II Americanize You Yet " l ,lc1, theclerLeVnn u'nt "fe Pt"ioner proceeded to hind ha. uZ&ft elerk was leaning ; h?f AAmT Ik' Then i,Thr S"StSrf" Then , dawned on me that the Ambled Vund," the clerk was mumbling at breakneck speed was the oath of allegiance. I'd never have recognized it, though I knew it by heart. Now, by the taking of that oath, that foreigner's wife, probably illiterate, and his minor children also became American citizens ! Granted the same priv ileges that had been snatched away from me, an American-born, a university graduate, a recent teacher in our public schools! That foreigner, in fact any man who is a citizen, has the power of conferring citizenship by adoption Moore's International Law Digest tells us: "The only mode of adoption by which a private person can confer citizenship upon an alien is that of marrying a female of foreign birth." He is limited, though, in the matter of increasing his family by adoption, for citizenship cannot be conferred on an alien child by adoption by an American citizen." Still, by the Act ot ivui when "an alien woman marries an American citizen, her minor children become citizens by virtue of her acquired citizenship." facCllagain W ow.n story- Timc had slipped away faster than we had anticipated, and unless Will's case aaalSOOc' hiC waM?in to be late to an urgent bark at V ""I8 hlIf1' In a f mi"es I was case rm dr' anxious not to miss Will's The bailiff held the door open for me savinff but Sa7dye MvUght hi witnesses already on the "Your linn Sfhcard rn0t t.hc bai,iff but thc examiner : thini is O K" v"1 ,ar With this ca" Kvcry imng is u. K. No questioning at all receiving TS a11' XS Was an A'ican citizen and receiving the congratulations of the judge I was no longer a subject of King George.