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Why the Jews Dislike the Morgenthau Repor
The Samue. Report Is Printed Everywhere But the Morgenthau Report Is Not. U. S. Jews Prefer to Have Americans Read the Bnt.sh Report. Why. IT SEEMS a far cry from the Jewish Question in the United States to the same Question in Poland, but inasmuch as the Jews of the United States are constantly referring to Poland for propaganda pur poses, inasmuch as there are 250.000 Polish Jews ar riving in the United States on a schedule made by their brethren here, and inasmuch as the people of Poland have had their own illuminating experience with the World Program, it would seem that Poland has something to teach the United States in this respect. Especially is this true since it is impossible to pick up an American newspaper without finding traces of Jewish anti-Polish propaganda a propaganda which is designed to take our eyes away from the thing that is transpiring at the Port of New York. If a reader of these articles should say, "Let us not think about Poland, let us think about the United States," the an swer is that he already is thinking about Poland the way the Jews of the United States want him to think, and the fact that he is thinking according to Jewish wishes in this respect incapacitates him up to a certain point to understand the entire Jewish Question in this country. Three chapters back in this series we presented part of a hearing before a United States Senate committee on the census question as it affected the Jew. The im migration question appeared as part of that inquiry. Then followed an article which showed that Jewish authorities adopt principles exactly opposite to those which had been defended before the United States Senators. A third article followed showing how Jew ish leaders resent the influence of the Modern State up on Judaism. All these subjects are essential to a well rounded understanding of the Jewish Question as a whole in its relation to the United States. Today we go back to the home of that quarter of a million people who are so rapidly being landed on our shores to see what they did there, and to find the basis for Jewish propaganda statements that these peo ple are fleeing from "persecution." We have five official witnesses whose observations have been printed under the seals of the United States and the British governments. The American docu ment is a "Message From the President of the United States, transmitting pursuant to a Senate Resolution of October 28, 1919, a communication from the Sec retary of State submitting a report by the Honorable Henry Morgenthau on the work of The Mission of the United States to Poland." It is Senate Document No. 177. This document includes also a supplementary report signed by Brigadier General Edgar Jadwin, United States Army. Morgenthau Displeased the Jews THERE is a certain mystery about this document. Though an edition was printed for public circula tion, it soon became extremely rare. It seemed to disap pear almost overnight. The copy from which this present examination is made was secured with the ut most difficulty. The head of that American Mission, which remained in Poland from July 13 to September 13, 1919, was Henry Morgenthau, an American Jew, who had been United States Minister to Turkey, a man of excellent public and private reputation. It is commonly said that the Jews did not like his report, hence its scarcity. This much appears : The Jewish press has never made much of it; it is not cited in Jewish propaganda; it has not had the en dorsement of American Jewry. The reason appears to be this that it told the calm truth about the situa tion of the Jews in Poland, and made very fair ob servations. But it is indirectly that American Jews show the opinion which they hold of the Morgenthau report, and it comes about in this way : When the American Mis sion left Poland, the British Mission arrived, and re mained until December. The chief member of the British Mission was an English Jew, Sir Stuart Samuel, whose brother Herbert is now High Commissioner of Palestine. He was accompanied by a British military officer, Captain P. Wright, who also submitted a sup plementary report. The two reports were submitted with an introductory report by Sir H. Rumbold, Brit ish representative at Warsaw. Now, of all five reports, the Morgenthau, Samuel. Jadwin, Wright and Rumbold reports, the Jews of the United States have circulated only one the Samuel report. It has been printed in full in newspapers at advertising rates ; it has been circulated broadcast as an American Jewish Congress Bulletin. Any number of Samuel reports may be obtained, but none of the re port which a member of the American diplomatic serv ice made and which the President of the United States transmitted as a Message to the Senate. Why5 Because four reports examined the situation all round and reported it without bias, and if they were printed in the United States and spread broadcast be fore the people, it would throw an entirely different light on the Jewish propaganda in favor of Polish im migration in enormous numbers. Even when the Jews of the United States published the Samuel report, they did not publish the Captain Wright report which accompanied it. In the Amer ican Jewish Congress Bulletin, the Wright report was condensed, mutilated, and shorn of its real meaning; while in the Maeeabaean, the reports of Rumbold and Wright are treated without courtesy and the Samuel report published in full. Jews "The Most Favored People" THAT the reader may form his own conclusions, the testimony of the five official witnesses (or six, if we count Homer H. Johnson, who signed the American report with General Jadwin) will be given on the prin cipal points; the agreements and disagreements will therefore be noticeable. 1. ON THE GENERAL SUBJECT OF PER SECUTION. Sir Stuart Samuel says : "Poles generally are of a generous nature, and if the present incitements of the press were repressed by a strong official hand, Jews would be able to live, as tkey Am done for the past 800 years, on good terms with their fellow citizens in Poland." Note how easily Sir Stuart talks about repression of the press. The Polish Press has at last obtained freedom of writing. It is exercising a privilege which the Jewish Press of Poland has always had. But now that it speaks freely of Jews, repress it with a strong hand, says Sir Stuart. He would not dare suggest that in England where the Press also is finding its freedom. As to the Yiddish press in Poland, the reader will find some information in Israel Friedlaender's essay, "The Problem of Polish Jewry." Friedlaender was a Jew and his book is published by a Jewish house in Cin cinpati. He says : "The Yiddish press sprang up and became a power ful civilizing agency among the Jews of Poland. The extent of its influence may be gathered from the fact, which curiously enough is pointed out reproachfully by the Poles, that the leading Yiddish newspaper of War saw commanded but a few years ago a larger circula tion than that of all the Polish newspapers combined." Henry Morgenthau says (par. 7) "The soldiers had been inflamed by the charge that the Jews were Bolsheviks, while at Lemberg it was associated with the idea that the Jews were making common cause with the Ukrainians. These excesses were, therefore, polit ical as well as anti-Semitic in character." And again (par. 8) -"Just as the Jews would resent being condemned as a race for the action of a few of their co-religionists, so it would be correspondingly un fair to condemn the Polish nation as a whole for the violence committed by uncontrolled troops or local mobs. These excesses were apparently not premeditated. for if they had been part of a preconceived plan, the number of victims would have run into the thousand instead of amounting to about 280. It is believed that these excesses were the result of a widespread anti Semitic prejudice aggravated by the belief that the Jeivish inhabitants were politically hostile to the Polish State." Sir H. Rumbold says: "It is giving the Jews very little real assistance to single out, as is sometimes done, for reprobation and protest tlic country where they have perhaps suffered least." Captain P. Wright says: "It is an explanation often given of what may be called, according to the point of view, the idiosyncracies or defects of the Jews, that they have been an oppressed and persecuted people. This is an idea so charitable and humane that I should like to think it, not only of the Jews, but of every other people. It has every merit as a theory e.vcept that of being true. When one thinks of what happened to the other 'racial, religious and linguistic minorities' of Europe in modern times . ... the Jews appear not as the most persecuted but as the most favored people of Europe." Brigadier General Jadwin states clearly that the persecution" cry may be regarded as propaganda. He says: "The disorders of November 21 to 23 in Lemberg became, like the excesses in Lithuania, a weapon of foretgn anti-Polish propaganda. The press bureau of the Central Powers, in whose interest it lay to dis- 7a 1 ' urlish Rcpub,ic M thc Permit ted the publication of articles in which an eye witness estimated the number of victims between 2500 and 3.000. although the extreme number furnished by the local Jewish committee was 76." (p. 15) And again: "In common with all free Covern ments of the world. Poland is faced with the danger of the political and international propaganda to which the war has given rise. The coloring, the invention, the suppression of news, the subornation of newspapers bv many different methods, and the poisoning by secret influences of the instruments affecting public opinion, in short, all the methods of malevolent propaganda are a menace from which Poland is a notable sufferer." (P. 17) . Of course, all this propaganda has been Jewish. The methods described are typically Jewish. Speaking about the number killed. Mr. Morgenthau estimates the total at 258: while Sir H. Rumbold says that only 18 were killed "in Poland proper," the others having been killed in thc disorders of the war zone. Sir Stuart Samuel estimates the total killed at 348. 2. OA' THE GENERAL CAUSE OF JEWISH TROUBLE BEFORE THE WAR. Sir Stuart Samuel "Thc Jews in Poland and Galicia number about 3,000.000. . . . Public opinion had been aroused against them by the institution of a virulent boycott. This boycott dates from shortly after the by-election for the Duma, which took place in Warsaw in 1912. . . . Business relations between Po land and Russia were very considerable in the past, and were generally in the hands of the Jews, not only in the handling of the goods exported, but also in their manufacture .... Initiative in business matters is al most entirely the prcrtgatnr of the Jewish popula tion. . . . Nearly the whole of the estate agents who act for the Polish nobility are of the Jewish race .... Attention must be paid to the fact that Jews form the middle class almost in its entirety. Above arc the aristocracy and below are the peasants. Their rela tions with the peasants are not unsatisfactory. The young peasants cannot read the newspapers and arc therefore but slightly contaminated by anti-Semitism until they enter the army. 1 was informed that it is not at all unusual for Polish peasants to avail them selves of the arbitrament of the liwUk rabbi's courts.'' That shows the Jews to have occupied a very favor able position in Poland and is to be remembered in connection with the previous quotation frcm Sir Stuart in which he says that if the incitements of the Press were repressed by a strong official hand, "the Jews would be able to live, as they have done for the past 800 years, on good terms with their fellow citizens in Poland." Jewish Control of Polish Business LET us take the points made by Sir Stuart, and ob- serve what the other witnesses say about them : (a) Beginning with the point as to the Jews' mo nopoly of business in Poland : Sir H. Rumbold "Sir Stuart Samuel would ap pear to be mistaken in his appreciation of the part played by the Jews in the pre-war business relations between Poland and Russia and in the industry of the former country. Whereas it is true that goods ex ported from Poland were to a large extent handled by the Jews, only a small percentage of those goods wer ' actually manufactured by them." Captain P. Wright "In Poland until the last gen eration all business men iccre Jews: the Poles mi re peasants or landowners, and left commerce to the Jens; even now certainly much more than half, and perhaps as much as three-quarters, of business men are Jews." "For both town and country I think it a true gen eralization to say that the East Jews are hardly ever producers, but nearly always middlemen. ' "Economically, the Jews appear at the very outset as dealers, not as producers, nor even as artisans, and chiefly dealers in money; in course of time the whole business and commerce of Poland became theirs and they did nothing else." (b) With regard to the "estate agents" mentioned by Sir Stuart Samuel: Captain P. Wright--"Poland is an agricultural country, but the East Jews, unlike the West Jews, play a large part in its country life. Every estate and cvrrv village has its Jew, who holds a sort of hereditary position in them; he markets the produce of the peas ants and makes their purchases for them in towns; every Polish landowner or noble had his own Jew, who did all his business for him, managed thc com- rnercal part of his estate, and found him money Besides this, nearly all the population of nearly all thc small country towns is Jewish, com and leather dealers, storekeepers and peddlers, and such like."