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Those Double-Jointed Goobers Stamping Out the Voodoo in Hayti . Concluded from page 6 mm mm jfijPJar5? CPS The peanut not a nut at all, but a pea that blooms above but matures in the soil must be left in the field lor several weeks to become thoroughly dry before it is ready for the roaster. The Peanut Is Coming Into Its Own By G. E. COLLINS AWAY back yonder when you were a kiddie and dad took you to the circus, about the very first thing he did was to buy for you that cherished bag of peanuts which, if you recall, you divided with the biggest elephant in the animal tent, first by tossing him a few and then, growing bolder, by letting him help himself from your nervous fingers. Doubtless you can remember when you munched peanuts far up in "peanut gallery" at the theater, and certainly you have consumed your share at the baseball park where you parted company with a well-nursed nickel in re turn for a modest, rat-eared bag of "big, fat, double jointed, hump-backed Ya-ginny goobers." But as far as the peanut itself is concerned, your knowledge of it probably ends right there. Did you ever drink peanut milk? Ever cat a chicken dish that contained no chicken at all but a dish made from peanuts? Did you relish that sweet, nutty flavor in last night's salad oil and fail to recognize it as peanut oil ? A few months ago when Dr. G. W. Carver, director of the experimental station of the famous Negro in stitution founded by Booker T. Washington, the Tus kegee Normal and Industrial Institute, was telling the Ways and Means Committee in Washington of his re markable research work, he modestly informed the legislators that the Tuskegee experiments had devel oped some 32 different varieties or kinds of milk from the lowly peanut. "It is a perfect emulsion of the proteids, fats, some of the carbohydrates and ash of the kernel into a stable, synthetic liquid having many of the characteris tics of cow's milk," he said. From the numerous milks that have been discovered more than 60 other interesting derivatives arising from them have been developed. The milk itself has been found highly satisfactory both for cooking and drinking. No less than 150 different ways in which the peanut may be used for the table, these ranging from the com mon roasted and salted nuts to the most elaborate mock meat dishes, have been developed through experiments. The mock meats include such as chicken, duck, turkey, goose and oyster. It may be a great many years before the humble circus peanut comes into the general use that many students of dietetics believe it will eventually reach, for peanut culture is comparatively new in this country. It had but a small place as a farm crop until as late as 1897 and prior to 1880 it had little or no commer cial value even as part and parcel of the circus. Its production and uses have developed within the last generation. The crop in the last few years has reached such proportions that its estimated value each year is more than $50,000,000, the output running into the mil lions of bushels. While grown with minor success in states north of the Mason-Dixon line, peanuts do best in the warmer lnK growing season of the southern states where its cultivation is being looked to as of real moment, now that the South is determined to produce something other than cotton. As a matter of fact, the peanut is not a nut at all, hut a pea. It belongs to the same group of plants as the common garden pea, differing only in that it blooms above ground while its fruits or pods mature in the soil. The flower forms at the base of the leaf stem and when it fades, the "peg" as it is known, begins to Rrow downward and goes into the ground where the pod develops into the form in wh eh it is most com monly seen. It matures in from 100 to 140 days and 's harvested much the same as the Irish potato. Where Rrown on a large scale the southern farmer usually Plows up the entire plant. These arc assembled into piles or stacks and left in the field for several weeks to be come thoroughly dry. The pods then are picked and sacked and the vines utilized as a hay for stock. , ine distinct varieties of peanuts are produced in l"e United States, chief of these being the Virginia and Jumbo, which are large with white shells making them best suited for marketing as we usually see them, and the Spanish, a variety used for manufacture of oil, cake, butter and other products because it is a small nut and contains a much greater percentage of oil than the other varieties. Aside from the roasted and salted nuts, the com mercial development in the last few years has been through its manufacture into oil and butter, two indus tries that have assumed very large proportions. Some plants now turn out more than 5,000,000 pounds of pea nut butter each year, and the last government report shows that more than 1,000,000 gallons of the highest grade oil was produced solely as a salad oil, to say nothing of the vast quantity of lower grade oil used in the manufacture of oleomargarine and soap. The process of making both butter and oil is not involved nor complicated ; in fact, they can be made by any house wife. To manufacture the butter, the roasted nuts are put through a brushing process which removes the thin red skin from around the kernel, splits the kernel in halves and removes the small core or germ. The meat then is mashed or ground into a fine pulp which is the butter. To improve the flavor, most makers add a small amount of salt varying from one to three per cent. Only the very highest grade of peanut oil is mar keted for table use and this is obtained from clean, solid kernels which are brushed, blanched, pulverized and rolled to crush the oil cells and then put under heavy pressure while cold. The process is very sim ilar to that of making cider. The oil obtained in the first run is the best, and is ready for immediate use. The lower grades come from subsequent pressing. Usually the cake that is left after the first run is re ground, heated and pressed a second time. The result ing oil lacks much of the rich flavor of the higher grade oil and is used mostly for manufacturing pur poses although it is possible to refine it into a second grade salad oil. The production of peanuts with average attention ranges from 50 to 75 bushels an acre, with larger yields possible through careful soil preparation and cultiva tion. The Spanish variety of nuts will turn out 45 to 55 per cent oil, a bushel averaging from one to one and a quarter gallons. A ton of shelled Spanish peanuts will yield 750 pounds of cake after the oil is removed. Some people make use of the best grade cake as a food but it is utilized chiefly as a stock feed. Many southern farmers grow peanuts solely for hogs, turning them into the field to harvest the nuts themselves. In northern states where efforts have been made to grow peanuts the gravest menace is the mole which will burrow the full length of a row of young nuts and strip it of every pod. By sprinkling a mixture of pine tar and kerosene on the seeds just before planting, the ravages of the mole and other rodents can be avoided. Very thorough cultivation of the soil before and after planting arc two essentials that southern farmers have found will pay the biggest returns. With its much-prized contents of legumen, lysin, myosin and amino acids, all excellent in favor of the peanut as an everyday menu ; with the oils, fats, gums and resins in its easily emulsified and its contents of the vitamines in their various soluble forms; with the relish with which it is eaten north, south, east and west by all classes of individuals and with no ill ef fects, the humble peanut gives every promise of coming to be a dignified member of the great family of farm products, and a food universal. Further development of standards and ideals which will bring about im proved methods of culture, marketing, grading and manufacturing, as has been the case in the development of the fruit and other industries, all allies in the big business of farming, will mean that the southern states have added another to the interesting and useful new products of Dixie's soil. the corpse. Stage jugglers have never done anything so expert. Behind the casket come the mourners, some times few, sometimes many, wailing and moaning. And they juggle and wail and moan until the burying ground is reached, whether the distance is one mi'e or ten. The entire performance, say those in Hayti who know, is not for the benefit of the departed at all, but so to befuddle and wind him up that he will never return to "hant" the living. Nevertheless, relatives of the dead carry food to the burying ground to nourish the spirit, and keep a lighted candle there for long periods to prevent the spirit's association with other spirits more evil. One day a Marine officer, riding along a bush trail, encountered an aged Negro, astride a burro, holding aloft a large cross. The cross was covered with voodoo signs bells, guns, snakes and mysterious hieroglyphics. Asked where he was going, the old man admitted that he was taking the cross to be blessed by a missionary priest who lived in a village nearby. The French missionary priest explained to the officer later that he actually went through the motions of blessing these voodoo crosses occasionally lest he lose what little hold his religion had on the illiterate blacks. He ad mitted that the voodoo was infinitely stronger with the natives than the religion which he had tried to plant in the district during many years of missionary work. The bandits against whom Marines waged war for a number of years in the "Black Republic" held their bands together against the white men by the propa ganda that Americans were suppressing the Haytian re ligion. These bandits were confirmed voodooists. The bodies of at least two Marines captured by the outlaws were found later by their comrades with vital organs removed, possibly by the high priest of voodooism. invoking for all those who participated in the rite truer aim against the whites in battle. According to fairly well authenticated reports, the voodoo cannibal believes that the eating of children imparts youth. The sacrifice and cann balism as prac ticed on the two Marines mentioned was undoubtedly a new experience to those who participated. The vital organs were almost without doubt devoured. Recog nition of the white man as a superior being, it is be lieved by those who have witnessed voodooism and cannibalism in Hayti, led the bandits to believe they were absorbing the courage of the white man when they partook of the heart. The liver, similarly, is thought to give wisdom and cunning, and the brain when applied to the rifle gives to that weapon an un erring aim. The voodoo "Houngan." according to popular be lief, is gifted with more than ordinary knowledge of poisonous herbs and plants and does not fail to use them in his or her practice. These priests and priest esses are said to be able to produce paralysis, tempo rary and permanent, death, immediate or lingering over weeks or months, harmless coma or violent insanitj with their poisons. Haytian presidents have been known to die of poison, a slow, wasting death, the exact cause not apparent during the period of suffer ing but conceded later to have been one of these subtle poisons. Other executives have been adherents of the mysterious rites of voodoo worship. The "Houngans" are credited with producing death like spells of sleeping on victims who are used to revive faith in their powers. The story is told of a young woman who apparently died suddenly and, according to the custom of the tropics, was buried soon after. At night, under the direction of a "priest," nu merous natives went to the cemetery and disinterred the body. The woman was found to be alive, and under the influence of the "priest" she was rendered conscious. Thus, with the faith in the "priest" revived, the wor shippers aided in a human sacrifice, the victim of which was the woman. The lungs and heart were taken from her body and eaten. One of the well-known students of voodooism in Hayti was Sir Spencer St. John, who, as Minister for England at Port au Prince for many years, wrote much of the "Black Republic." Regarding voodooism he penned : "Every foreigner in Hayti knows that cannibalism exists and that the educated classes try to ignore it rather than devise means to eradicate it." The distinguished Britisher declares it was common knowledge that the black Emperor Soulouque was a champion of voodooism as well as many of his gen erals, one of whom was a "Houngan." "If persons so high placed can be counted among its votaries, it may readily be believed that the masses are given up to this brutalizing worship," said Sir Spencer. "It will yet be found that almost every Haytian of the lower orders is more or less connected with one or another of the voodoo sects During the reign of the Fmpcror Soulouque (1849-1858), a priestess was arrested for having performed a human sacrifice too openly. When about to be conducted to prison, a foreign by-stander remarked aloud that she would probably be shot. The priestess turned and laughed saying: 'If I were to beat the sacred drum and march through the city, not one from the Emperor down but would humbly follow me.'" The priestess went to jail but no one ever heard of punishment being inflicted on her, Sir Spencer relates.