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1TIHI15 SLAlIHBOlBKf ENlBEIPIENlIXEttlt
10 The First Orchardist in the Ohio River Valley MOST of us cat apples in one form or an other, but how many ot us have any thought whatsoever for that quaint figure of the pkMWtr Period, Johnny Appleseed. who would rather go barefooted and in rags to serve his fellow man than to wear fine raiment and ret in perfect case? Hs name was John Chapman, born in Mass.t chusetts the same year that the colonies declared their independence. a hoy, the neighbors bc1ie! him rather shiftless; but he was only trying to find himself and discover the line oi work he mould do Like any Otfcef young man he visited around with nil cousins. hi aunts, uncles, and friends. Then one day he heard the call ot the wild West. What did he do? Well. Johnny went to a cider mill, loaded his boat with apple seeds, and floated down the Ohio River with Ins strange cargo of waste from the presses. That young man was the first economist the Ohio River country ever had; likewise he was its first philanthr. pit. also its first and most ex tensive nurseryman. He went in advance ot the hardy pioneers, made friends with the Indians, itopped frequently, cleared ground, and planted some of the seeds thereon. He would do this over and over, Igain and again He would return to the null for more seeds. look after the seedlings, and put out new apple orchards. h n the settlers arrived, 'hey were sur prised to Rnd that somebody had preceded them and lessened the asperity of their gh and reads existence. Sometimes they never knew tin identity of the Good Sa maritan. Johnny was a oncer sort. He can to the settlement of Mansfield ill the territory that is now the state oi Ohio. The villas r greeted hnn with .trying comments. His .(ld dr and his g- neral dowdy apptMr.mce excited even in that uncouth outpost of civilization, belittling stares, frowns, and ridicule Hut Johnny cared not. Hi osed . meld -is his headquarters for a time, rent about his business, cleared more around, planted more seeds, and replenished his supply from the Pennsylvania eider presses. While Johnny remained in the Mansfield neighborhood, a traveling aiissionarv came to spread the gospel in this unrestricted field Oi labor ( ' e day a motley crowd, with Johnny included therein, clustered around the stump pulpit oi the missionary. In the course Of his sermon the preacher forcefully propounded the rhetorical question: "Where now i- there a man who. like the primitive Christians, is traveling to haavca barefooted and clad in coarse rai ment ?" Johnnj looked down on his bare feet and the old coffee sack of burlap which served as hi coal Though ne aid nothing at that moment, he did not relax his steadfast at tention Presently the orator paused, and again flung forth his challenge: "Where now is there a man who, like the primitive Christians, is traveling to heaven barefooted and clad in coarse The first orchardist of the Ohio River alley arose from the l g on which he had been reclining. He made his w.i t rw.ird. he placed a bare foot on the stump pulpit, pointed toward his rude coffee sack gar ment, and announced in a clear firm voice: Here's your primitive Christian. t this unexpected answer to his question the preaeher seemed flustered, and soon he pronounced the benediction He had nut been prepared for the oc currence. Hut Johnny was as much surprised at the abrupt ending Of the dis. urse as the itinerant preacher had been at receiving an answer to his question. The settlers of Mansfield learned to revere the rust c, eccentric fellow. They bestowed on him the nickname of Johnny Appleseed. They traded him old clothing for yOUtlg trees or merely thanked him heartily; but certainly the old-time orchards were thus started and the fruit provided sustenance for their i hildren and their children's children. The pres ent generation so highly reveres his memory that monuments have been placed in three cities, first in a public park of Mansfield, in 1900; in Ashland. Ohio. 15 years later, and in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the nct war after the Ashland event. "What was it." asked Dr. Alfred Vivian, of the Ohio State Agricultural College, in making the main address at Fort Wayne, "that took him from Western Pennsylvania, where he might have lived a comfortable as a nurseryman and sent him forth with his apple seeds to the ever-receding frontier? What power led him to spend those long years journeying on the Wller Itayi of Ohio through the trackles forest plant ing e ds? Wh.it was the motive that sent him back year after year to see that his brush fences were in tact, to dress his trees, to bud and Kraft with stock from the choicest varieties of the Fast ' "It could not have been for gain, for he seldom accepted money for his trees and every one was i 1 come to the trees even though he gave nothing in exchange Was it pure love of the apple tree that prompted him to carry it into the wilderness? Some one has said that no one really appreciates a tree until he feels impelled to put his arms around it and with his ringers lovingly explone every seam and crevice of the bark. Tradition tells us that Johnny Appleseed so loved his apple trees. Was his a divine call? Did By CARL SCHURZ LOWDEN Ins great love of children prompt him to have ready for the children of the pioneers that great blessing of childhood the apple?" Young 1 hapraan grew up with the wanderlust within hnn. He was 20 years of age when he disappeared from BOOM and went west to work at odd jobs and make his way as an interpreter He met the Indians without fear, lived with them or near them, carried no guns of any sort, gained their friendship, and was accorded their confidence The precise time of Johnny's decision to become an itinerant nurseryman is not known . hut there is I Mcord that in 1800 he went down the Ohio with two canoes of apple seeds. He stopped opposite what i now W'cllsburg. West Virginia, cleared a noftiottoi the wilderness, and started there his first nursery. A few was polite and attentive in manner and cha conversation." It is an established fad iW 5 c : - . . u'dt hf iiiusi i aiw a- .i jmoiivvi iwuuiansi, also that h ' h I all the mercy and kindness which one most to study life in the forest. ; . 4,,,,,v ,v long grass on a tk he had selected tor an apple orchard when a sink h' his hare foot. Johnny wielded the scythe andStuS the reptile, nut he afterward regretted his ti 1 1 M t. ... i ooi ie.iow. ne sorrowed, he on v nut . me when L in the heat of my ongodl) passion , - im wnu .IW.tV Sotn innv '. n,uu i ua.i, aim mere lay the fellow dead " II r v - rsasaea ;jtta ttaaqaj; sLE aja saw aMMAgLMaaiv ftHpipFrHK IsSkHaVr BaT bhh mw v w taafivavV aV . M BftaHg swv s JV! aaV aValfV ssswsww wnHpnsHT a !Lnww nLwaSL nVAnwhwnwAkwInWinwInV wnwBv swnwnw nwaKflnw)nw)nS LV 'nV BwnwflnwiWMasiwRE gwwHwewnnwnrALwj. 9HakafiaiMJAkfMn1 HBawSHaaaisa. awawawawaasaMiSMSr'PM m nwm.. tj n me HHQvwwnwwtg LBwR,' r7 ip sswB JPKV v wji- "mm raiment ?" Upper - c.ocup o the plate on the Johnn Applrtecd monumrni in Swinney Perk. Fort Wayne, Indiana I wer The whole monument. years later he returned to the spot and Kavc or bartered the fptaaa traWJ to the few settler that had come The odd man never waited for the settlers to show him a location Vlwayi he went ahead and ch wj th sites on which Mother Nature had bestowed particular care; with uncanny precision he seemed able to select those where towns would be founded. When th slender trees were ready for planting, the people had arrived and were read for them. The l rontierstnen looked on Johnny AppttSCld with a kind of superstitious awe. Though he has been designated as ignorant, he was really a reader and thinker of more than ordinary ability. He km a phi losophy, he often preached from the Bible; on one oc casion, at least, he rved as a Fourth of Julv orator. This occurred at N rwalk. Ohio, in 1816. th year that the sister state of Indiana gained admittance into the nation. Johnny had been described as WWJI Hid and poor If this man could be merciful to a treacherous snake, what would be the extent of his kindness to i n aturcs less obnoxious ? lew fears later he haloed sosnc strderi make road, but during the process they accidentally en countered a hornets nest, about the last thins a wise person wants to find One of the issech crept under Johnny's cotfec lack ctmi i stnni repeatedly while Johnny slowly saDoJ it out. The men laWfhed, but ohntn re buked them h laytnsj 'it would not be right to kill the poor thing, for it did not intend to hurt me." lo consider the motive was thorowjhh characteristic oi the man. The average per- son notes the act. judges D) it alone, gj then strikes without further thought often deliberated while he endured the pattl, and then tort bore to take revenue. An attitude of this sort has been called the measart oi true greatness Johnny often stayed all night in the forest with a hollow log as his only shelter, though sometimes he would rest in a settler's cabin with the hard BOOT ai his bed. He would never remain in any Io already OCCUpied; for he was scrupulously careful BOt to disturb any of the wild folk of the bitf woods. He considered it sinful to kill creatures for food, and believed that the soil provided all that was n&essary for human subsistence. This strange odd-acting bachelor was a preacher with deeds instead ol words as a saedtuni ol expression He most strenu oush followed the ideal ot frugality and abstinence. Perhaps .ts ardent . of our present-day conservationists he opposed waste of food and waste of any kind The many old-time apple orchards scattered through Pennsylvania. Ohio and Indiana, long liaCC dead, were each a StflUOU of his preaching On the sixteenth day ol August, 1812. General William Hull and his American army surrendered at Detroit to the British and Indians. Johnny Appleseed was one of the first persons to hear of the mbfortaat With the Indians emboldened by the cap ture, he feared outbreaks ; so he traveled day and nifiht to warn the Settlers of the danger of massacre so that they might escape. Some times in the dead of night he would arouse a frontier family and in a piercing voice deliver this nsrssagf ' "The Spirit of the brd is upon He hath annointed me to blow th trumpet in tlie wilderness and sound an alarm in the forest; for, behold, the tribes of the heathen are round about your doors and a devouring flame followeth after them. The number of lives that Johnny Appleseed saved by his sjectacular warnings cannot be definitely known, lint the act itself was heroic and typical of the lua'nt traveling nurseryman, also a strong illustration of his creed of doing the greatest possible good for as many people as he could. johnny Appleseed was a picturesque character, SWaD, wiry, restless, possessing keen black eyes, long dark hair, and a scanty beard which nerer made any ac quaintance with a pair of shears Occasionally he would wear home-made sandals to protect h's tect when setting out on a long journey; and often he would present a striking appearance with a boot on one foot and a cast-off moccasin on the other in summer and during a mild winter he would have nis it et bare. The headgear of this eccentric traveler was unique He had a tin vessel that served the double P"rP5C.v cooking utensil and cap. However, he found tnaMiw would not protect his eves from the sun. u W 'l1 a hat of pasteboard with a broad visor A T both useful and ornamental he adopted it as . permanent fashion. He wore second-hand clowns he had received for hi apple trees; but in later In eut holes in a coffee sack for his hd and arnr and got along very well with it as a three-m-shirt-coat. . . ft. It is a very serviceable cloak," he patiently r plained to questioners. "It is as good clothing as man need wear." ornt When almost every man carried a weapon ioi sort, usuallv a s,uirrcl rifle, Johnny earned none. Indians considered him a great medicine man, trusted him. and he trusted them. , Johnny's mission was one of peace and gj ,$ Kvery seed that grew into a tree that adorned j f rude home was a living testament of scrvue an hood. Whenever and wherever the stor o j Appleseed and his work has been told, tnjn hip were higher ideal, born and better American c.ti built.