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BEAUMONT DAILY ENTERPRISS.
PETROLEUM GIVEN A THOROUGH TEST ON CALIFORNIA ROAOS. Oil Applied When Hot Made the Best Surface and was Economical. Coat of the Tettt Not Largo Ever since the discovery of oil at Beaumont the mutter of using the crude oil on streets and roads has at tracted a great deal of Interest. Tbe following extracts from an. article by Theo. F. White lu the Cltograph. published at Redlunds. Cul.. will be of more than usual Interest. Mr. White is supervisor of tbe fourth California farming district and Is an acknowledg ed authority on the subject. The writ er begins his article with the caution that the methods In vogue In that county may need to be Intelligently varied to meet the conditions encoun tered In other localities. It has been an experiment with us, successful It Is true, but we would not pretend to lay down rules thut will apply In all cases. There may have to be more or less ex perimenting in euch section to fit the varying conditions. "We commenced using oil on roads in San Bernardino county In the spring of 1899. Mr. De Camp of the Califor nia Dustless Roads company first brought it to our attention. We exam ined some roads in I.os Angeles coun ty that had been treated by his com pany the year before. We were favor ably impressed with the results and made a contract with the company to oil twenty-five to thirty miles of roads in the vicinity of San Bernardino. Red lands, Highland. Rialto and Colton: the contractor to put on three applica tions of oil din ing the season and keep the roads free from dust from the 1st of May to the 1st of December. The contract price was $204 per mile . It will be perceived from this that the idea was to keep the dust down, to use oil Instead of water; and the contract or used just enough oil to accomplish this. The results were for the most part satisfactory. "But in 1900. with the knowledge we had gained, we concluded to undertake the oiling of roads ourselves. We ad vanced a step, and while keeping the dust down attempted to build up a surface that would take the wear of travel; in other words, to use oil as an Important element in making a per manent roadbed, and with one appli cation put on during June and July we obtained better results than with the three applications put on by the con tractor the year before. It might be suggested that the oil put on before en tered into the results obtained in 1900. "This may have been the case in some measure on a few spots, but for the most part the light sprinkling, put on in 1899 were worn out by Decem ber and the roads were not in the best condition to go through the winter and by the following summer the oil evi dences were but slight. So that we may say that on most of our roads, where we used oil in 1900. we were commencing anew. "We did not skimp the quantity but poured on from 100 to 150 barrels to the mile, eighteen feet wide and in parts even more than this. "There are 120 to 130 barrels of oil to each tank car so that considering the difference between city streets and country road3 a car to the mile would be a fair calculation; thus the Carrol ton avenue commissioners have enough oil to tfst thoroughly a mile of the roadbed. "We obtained a good wearing sur face and the roads so treated are in excellent condition to go through the winter. The quantity of oil needed the next spring or summer will be much less than that used the previous year. "We have obtained the best results on roads the material of which wh-n packed down forms a firm, hard road bed. Six months ago I would have ad vised against the use of oil on loose sand or loose alluvial soil. But expe rience has modified somewhat my Ideas In regard to this. I am not prepared to advise Its us on loam soil but from experiments made good results can be got from loose alluvial soil. "A abort stretch of snrh road wn treated in 1SW to one heavy applica tion of oil: the dust was kept down that e,on. In 100. In July, another heavy application wh put on and it commr need to pack and Is bow a g3l road. A lighter application next nm mer with some buildlna tip will vi Jently make it an erelleiit rnal. "Quicker rent are tth''n'-A r potting on torn sand or san'ly l'a vial road, a e'irfacin of f!rtnr na terial and pa Vif! down firmly 1o-e Oil.Bt. But hi'e a ros4tl fho-iH porotm eoo'irb to ab"rb tbe hot nl to a d'Th of io'it an lnh. the surface may te too l.bt to do thi. n bi'h c- a th'n in-ftf f hrr Hill r T"1r 1 ' ! ! -V -. Ui ill pv.k "be in). "Our Mr. Glover had a auction of road running out of Culion made of laie.tone; the surface was very com. pad. He spread over it a thin layer of nai before oiliug and got good re sult. Tisht clay road thut are smooth and hard and free from dust when the oil l U be. applied should be treated in the uiiip way, the aud layer to be from one half lu oue inch thick. It U useless to apply oil to a road the niuteriul of which is strongly chorged with alkali. The alkali unites with the oil. muklug a soap which tbe first ruin dissolve and carries off. Such a roud should be surfaced with some good material before oiling, "It la necessary to have tbe road-bed as well drained for an oiled road as It la for a ruacadamlied road; the oil will keep tbe water out from above but provision must be made agaiust Its coming in from below. "It Is necessary that all the loos coverlug of tbe road shall be saturat ed with oil and a penetration secured Into the firmer surface below, the deeper the better. "It Is necessary for good results that the surface of the road should be perfectly dry and the warmer the tem perature the better the oil penetrates and unites with the road material. For this reason It Is better to apply the ol between the hours of 9 a. m. and sun set. "Tut oil Is applied hot from 200 degrees Fahrenheit up. As oil and wa ter will not mix well, It should not be upplied on a wet surface. The oil should run as freely as water and sat urate the ground as quickly, hence the benefits of heating. When near the refineries the oil is secured at a tem perature of from 250 to 300 degrees. "At San Bernardino there Is a heat ing plant with tanks containing a car load and the oil Is heated by steam coils to a temperature of about 200 degrees. "The hot oil Is run from the tanks into oil wagons holding about twenty barrels of forty two gallons which re quire two to four horses to draw to place of distribution, according to con dition of roads, distance, etc. We have taken oil five or six miles from place of heating. Ten to twelve miles I should say would be the practicable limit. And If the distance is even as much as six miles I would suggest that the hauling tank be jacketed to retain the heat. "From the oil wagon the oil is run into a distributor and sprinkled or poured over the road. The California Dustless Roads company makes a ma chine that hitches on behind the wagon and distributes the oil over a strip six feet wide, three strips wide being the usual width of application. This dis tribution has openings 6 inches apart opened and closed by valves operated by levers. It also has stirring fingers and drags for going over the road af ter the oil is put on. to mix the dust and loose covering of the road with the oil. This was designed for dusty roads for laying the dust with oil in place or sprinkling with water. We have noted before that this was the original idea in using oil on roads. The machine did fairly well on loose roads but when it came to building one hard and smooth and free from loose material, it worked very imperfectly. "After a wagon load of oil is distrib uted as above and while the wagon is going after another load, the man who operates the distributor as soon as the oil has soaked into the road all It will, runs the distributor with draws down, or some implement that will stir the loose material backward and forward over the road until the oil and dust and loose covering are thoroughly mix ed. These operations are continued un til the whole road is covered. "We have found that an ordiuary le ver harrow In which the teeth can be well slanted back does very well in this connection on a loose road, using this to go over the road just before oil ing to smooth and slightly furrow the surface to hold the oil, and afterward to stir and mix the same. But for quicker and more thorough work on the average road I have designed a stirrer in which the fingers or teeth have an oscillating or lateral as well as a forward motion. This causes them to cross backward and for ward the straight lines in wh'.cB the oil is put on. "After the road Is so gone over there will be places that have too much oil are sticky and other spots f ' 1 1 i 4 . V sail afar -r ' . ' , f.- - , H3TEL S3:E AT POPT TH. where ibmk boles bad commenced to form or where there was an unusual amount of dui that have not euousU. Thes spot are gone over again. On places having too much oil some dry dirt from the side of the hoad I light ly spread or If it la a graveled road, some frebh fiuely screened gravel or sharp sand is sprinkled on, just about enough In each rase to take up the sur plus oil and no more. Ou loose spot requirlug more oil, additioual oil I run and with shovel or hoe aud rake, Is thoroughly mixed with tbe loose material entirely to tbe bottom of tbe hole. This soon pucks down from the travel. "While the oil la being applied and stirred Into the loose covering of tbe road, travel should be kept to oue side. In some cases It may be necessary to r ? oil one half of the width while the tra vel is on the other half, and then turn it on to the oiled half while the bal anve is gone over. The next day after oil is put on a road travel can be re sumed. "As before noted the quantity of oil we put on a width of sixteen to eighteen feet is from 100 to 150 bar rels per mile. If the surface is very loose more than 150 barrels may De required, the rule being to put on all that the road surface will take up. It the work of putting on the first ap plication is thoroughly done much less oil will be required the following year, in most cases not more than one half. In the case of a piece of road built in 1899, not more than one quarter of the oil used in the first application was needed to put it in good shape in 1900. "The oil we have used is a residuum, after the naptha, gasoline and kero sene are extracted and has a gravity of about 17 degrees, being rich in bi tumen. The bitumen or asphalt base is the most valuable ingredient in the oil for road making; coming directly from the stills it is entirely free from water. If crude oil is used it should be an oil right in bitumen and if it contains much water it should be sub jected to a heating process to drive it off. "The cost of crude oil f o b Los An geles is even greater than the Beau mont product delivered in New Or leans by railway freight, at present rates a barrel of forty two gallons costing 95 cents there while the Beau mont oil can be delivered in New Or leans in tank cars for less than 75 cents per barrel. On the roads near San Bernardino the cost of hauling and sprinkling, including all labor, va ries somewhat from $15 per miie. "A correspondent asks for a com parison between oiling roads and in sprinkling with water. "Sprinkling with water ts to keep the dust down and if oil ts used for the same purpose it is shown above that we contracted to huve this done for $204 per mile. This does not vary greatly in many sections from the cost sprinkling with water. "It is rather under the cost of wa ter here. Three and a half miles of road in Highland, near San Barnar dino. cost $1230. or $:;.".l per mile to sprinkle with water for the six months required in 1900. This is no doubt above the average but is mor? ,ali. factory merely for this purpose since the dust is alway laid and the road is never muddy as it sometimes is where water is used. But since we have gone beyond the dust laying pro position and are using oil for roud ma king the first heavy application should properly be charged to construction uc-couut and the maiuteuuute thereaf ter, lu our climate, will be much less. How It may do lu u climate entirely ditteivut from our I a matter for ex periment. We have long dry summers and sometime but not always, wet winter. Hut even our wet winters have more sunshiue thuu cloud. The road dry off between the rain. "The severest trial of an oiled roud would be a loug. contiuuedt wet spell without chance of It drying aud un der heavy travel. "la such case the oiled surface would likely cut through In placea and If tbe material underneath was of a nature to work up the road might be r ill -V L LOADING LUMBER FOR EUROPE, SABINE badly damaged. Under such circum stances it would be advisable to have a thick layer of road material say ab out two inches impregnated with oil, packed down on a hard, firm roadbed underneath, the latter well drained and the road crowned without depres sions In which water might lodge. "A correspondent asks if oiling is a success on macadamized roads. I have heretofore cited a case where it was applied to a road macadamized with limestone with very satisfactory results. In this case the surface was too tight to aborb the oil and a thin layer of sand was spread over the road before oiling. This, when oiled, pack ed down and made a very pleasant surface to drive over. It also gives evidence of greatly prolonging the life of the road since the oiled surface takes the wear and preserves the road bed underneath. The south end of this same road is within the corpor ate limits of Colton and is not oiled. This was full of chuckholes and loose places last summer. Here wa3 an ob ject lesson; on the same road all of it macadamized at the same time you passed from the rough ehucky and the loose surface of one portion on to the smooth, pleasant oiled surface and free from dust of the other. "Oil made the difference. We know that one of the greatest enemies to a macadamized road is long continued dry weather such as we have during our southern California summers, unless water is used daily to sprinkle it. The cementing property of he macadam is destroyed and the stones loosen and holes form. Oil appears to prevent this and keeps the roadbed intact. "Another corrtspondent asks about the use of oil ou bicycle paths. We have not built bicycle paths with It, but our oiled roads are good for bicy cle traveling and a path so treated and reserved for bicycle use, if built of material that will pack down firm and hard, would be about equivalent to an asphalt road. Alongside the Southern Pacific railroad track, where oil is us ed to lay the dust through this sec tion is a favori'e path for bicycle ri ders. "The stickiness after applying the oil which might damage a bicycle tire, lasts but a few days and can be at onie i-emedied and this plan is advis able by sprinklinz the path lightly with sharp sand just enough to tafc ui auy KurpliiH oil. the sprinkling to be done the next day after oiling and the path then rolled. From fifteen to twenty barrels of oil will be required for a mile for a pa'h three fe-t ide. actodlng to the thurutter of the ma terial to which it I pplied. A light dretsiug of five barrel to the mile during the summer of the following ear, with sprinkling of aud may be found advisable. SITCIFIC GRAVITY. Two a, of Determining the Weight Ratio of Petroleum. At this tune, when the air is full of talk of oils, of various grade and grav ities, it may be of interest to tome to know the significance of the usual ref erence to specific gravity by degree and by decimal figure. There are two ways of defining the gravity of oil; one is the decimal ex pression of actual comparison in weight -I - : '; . - ; : V SSftal'T PASS. with water, and the other is a scale of degrees, placed upon a hydrometer and the depth to which this instrument sinks in the fluid is named as the degree of gravity. The Baiunc scale is generally used in this country. The hydrometer which is made to float in an upright po sition, is marked ten degrees at the point it sinks in pure water at the temperature of 6o degrees, Fahrenheit. In lighter fluids at the same temperature it sinks farther and is graduated up to the re quirements of the very lightest liquids. All weights are compared with pure water, which is the most common and accurate standard. Ten dcgiees Baume is the indicated weight of water which is unity, or 20 degrees Baume is a trifle more than nine-tenths the weight of water (0.93,13). An American gallon of distilled water weighs approximately 8.33 pounds. The following table shows the actual weights of liquids of various gravities at fio degrees Fahrenheit. They are not mathematically exact, hut are acepted as near enaugh for commercial use. Degrees Baume. 10 20 30 40 50 60 .... 70 .... 80 Specific Weight. Gravity Gallon. . 1. (water) 8.33 lbs. . 0.9333 7.78 lbs. . . 0.8750 7.29 lbs. , . 0.8.-35 6.86 lbs. . 0.7777 6.48 lb. , . 0.7368 6.14 lbs. 0.7000 5 82 lb. . 0.6666 5.5S lbs. 00 0.6222 S-.lo ib To find the actual ratio of gravity when only the hydrometer test is known a simple rule is to divide 140 by 130 plus the number of degrees. Thus, 140 di vided by 130 plus 20 equals 0.9333 the specific gravity at 20 degrees Baume To determine the degrees when the spe cific gravity is known, divide 140 by the specific gravity and subtract 130. Thus 140 divided by 0 0333 minus 130 equals 20. It will be seen therefore that when any oil is mentioned as being of say. .9218 as the Texa- product that is it actual weight compared with water and Baume call- would show nlHint 22 degrees, the former bring it actual ratio of weight. ompar-d with water, and the latter Petroleum GarrtTe. simply the hydrometer ecale Indica tion. Petroleum C.azeMe. WEEKLY ENTERPRISE RELIA BLE OIL REPORTS AND ALL THE NEWS ABOUT THE OIL FIELD $1.00 PER YEAR. 1 STITK.NDOI S FKilKKS. The umouut of luuiiey luventtj ia l.ie petroleum busiues iu the Timed Mates u enonuoiL. The folluwiu es 1 mute huve receutly been made by iouservutlve opera tor, uud are thought to be a nearly reliable a It I possible to get them: . Production thut I, tuklug the crude oil from the ground rig, tool machinery, etc., J.'iiO.OOO.OOO, lu pipe Hue, refineries, tuuk. tank cura aud necessary adjunct, $000,000, 000. Number of men employed la actual production of oil, 73,000, Those who depeud upon production of petroleum for a livelihood, 175,000. Wells drilled from first well In 1859 to Januury 1. 1901. 157,000. Cost of these wells, $392,500,000. Estimated production, barrels of crude petroleum form 1851 to January 1, 1901, 1,000,000.000. At average price of total production during 40 years, $2.77 per barrel, total value of this output would be $2,770, 000.000. Exports of petroleum aggregate on an average yearly, $50,000,000. Miles of pipe line, 76,200. Number of tank cars,, 12,100. Tank steamers currying product t Kurope, Asia, India, China, Japan, Australia, Africa and other countries, 100. First oil lease of record, between J. D. Augier and Brewer, Watson and Co., lu Cherrytree township, Pu., In 1853. First pipe line laid in 18G2 to trans port oil from the Tarr farm on Oil Creek to the Humboldt refinery. At this time the oil was hauled by team sters at a rate of about $8 per barrel. The pipe line rate was to have been $1 per barrel, but the teamsters tore the line up. Iu 18d3 a well wus drilled on a piece of stony ground on the east side of Oil Creek, which has produced oil to the value of over $4,000,000. The deepest well ever drilled was put down by the Forest Oil company at West Elizabeth, 12 miles from Pitts burg. It Is 6,000 feet deep. A MODERN TANK SHIP. Two Hundred Are Engaged In Carry ing American Oil. A tank ship may be described as a steel marine Goliath, divided into steel-walled, air-tight, oll-tlght com partments, located forward of the mo tor section and living rooms. It is loaded and unloaded by pumping the oil direct to and fro between the wharf reservoirs and the compartments of the ships. Each compartment holds on the average 140,060 gallons of oil, and each tank ship has from twelve to twenty compartments. Aft of the compartments are the engine and the boilpr rooms which the oil can only reach in case of extraordinary wrecks. Aft of the motor power are the liv ing rooms. A spirit of automatism prevails on the tank ship, so regulat ed that the oil compart ments are filled up without wasting a drop. The tank ship Is loaded to the shell, from keel to amldshsips, deck, except that, far forward. Is a dry com partment for other freight. The highest type of tank steam ships Is found In the "Tuscarora" class, carrying 2,500,000 gallons of oil in bulk. The twenty oil compartments are connected by a complete system of pipes with the pump rooms, where are powerful duplex pumps for band ling the cargo, with connections to all the sea valves and manifolds. About six hours la sufficient to discharge the cargo. The ten inch mains have bell mouth suction connections fitted with independent valves tested for an oil pressure of 400 pounds to the square inch, and designed to atand the action of salt water and naptha. They are op erated from the upper deck by means of valve rods fitted with connections. Tbe square Iron boxes one sees on the deck of tank ships are expansion hatclxH over the tanks. In which the oil risen and falls with the barometer, or, as it is made to expand or contract by the atmosphere. There are about 20ft tank ships en-Kag'-d In the transport of American oil. most of them hulling from New York. Philadelphia, and Baltimore. In ad dition. .".Oft oil cask refuel ire engag--d. Tbla great fleet of 5K TMmH handled ia i:"i the enormous to'al of one billion and a half gallons of oil. mostly refined, a frattioa of it, 114 million gallons being rnide oil. Ma ny of thte i,hin carry othi-r cargo on the return trips. Four tank ulilp which left New T'trk l1 v-ar load'-d i h t,rln ar iiie at tbei- d'Mina'ion without a t r- of the Ktr of p" roleu m and de-!in-.- thejr rro in perfect roa ttition. fine t k r k .hip tkke oil ia nlli fnn rh:ht4elpti;a to faWatta. t,ere 'ifc1. :th mal for Sifiaapore. ! it i leaned an4 t b-a take oa .pi.-e. tni fbmira!c for New Tork. WEEKLY ETEPPPIiZRELIA eit OIL PEPOSITS AND ALL THE st:v. !ki t tip: !'. nn;.r ii'-- vr.n Tr.n