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The daily enterprise. (Beaumont, Tex.) 1898-190?, August 20, 1901, OIL EDITION, SECOND PART, Image 15

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Oil Applied When Hot Made the Best
Surface and was Economical.
Coat of the Tettt Not Largo
Ever since the discovery of oil at
Beaumont the mutter of using the
crude oil on streets and roads has at
tracted a great deal of Interest. Tbe
following extracts from an. article by
Theo. F. White lu the Cltograph.
published at Redlunds. Cul.. will be of
more than usual Interest. Mr. White
is supervisor of tbe fourth California
farming district and Is an acknowledg
ed authority on the subject. The writ
er begins his article with the caution
that the methods In vogue In that
county may need to be Intelligently
varied to meet the conditions encoun
tered In other localities. It has been
an experiment with us, successful It Is
true, but we would not pretend to lay
down rules thut will apply In all cases.
There may have to be more or less ex
perimenting in euch section to fit the
varying conditions.
"We commenced using oil on roads
in San Bernardino county In the spring
of 1899. Mr. De Camp of the Califor
nia Dustless Roads company first
brought it to our attention. We exam
ined some roads in I.os Angeles coun
ty that had been treated by his com
pany the year before. We were favor
ably impressed with the results and
made a contract with the company to
oil twenty-five to thirty miles of roads
in the vicinity of San Bernardino. Red
lands, Highland. Rialto and Colton:
the contractor to put on three applica
tions of oil din ing the season and keep
the roads free from dust from the 1st
of May to the 1st of December. The
contract price was $204 per mile . It
will be perceived from this that the
idea was to keep the dust down, to use
oil Instead of water; and the contract
or used just enough oil to accomplish
this. The results were for the most
part satisfactory.
"But in 1900. with the knowledge we
had gained, we concluded to undertake
the oiling of roads ourselves. We ad
vanced a step, and while keeping the
dust down attempted to build up a
surface that would take the wear of
travel; in other words, to use oil as an
Important element in making a per
manent roadbed, and with one appli
cation put on during June and July we
obtained better results than with the
three applications put on by the con
tractor the year before. It might be
suggested that the oil put on before en
tered into the results obtained in 1900.
"This may have been the case in
some measure on a few spots, but for
the most part the light sprinkling, put
on in 1899 were worn out by Decem
ber and the roads were not in the best
condition to go through the winter and
by the following summer the oil evi
dences were but slight. So that we
may say that on most of our roads,
where we used oil in 1900. we were
commencing anew.
"We did not skimp the quantity but
poured on from 100 to 150 barrels to
the mile, eighteen feet wide and in
parts even more than this.
"There are 120 to 130 barrels of oil
to each tank car so that considering
the difference between city streets and
country road3 a car to the mile would
be a fair calculation; thus the Carrol
ton avenue commissioners have
enough oil to tfst thoroughly a mile
of the roadbed.
"We obtained a good wearing sur
face and the roads so treated are in
excellent condition to go through the
winter. The quantity of oil needed the
next spring or summer will be much
less than that used the previous year.
"We have obtained the best results
on roads the material of which wh-n
packed down forms a firm, hard road
bed. Six months ago I would have ad
vised against the use of oil on loose
sand or loose alluvial soil. But expe
rience has modified somewhat my Ideas
In regard to this. I am not prepared
to advise Its us on loam soil but from
experiments made good results can
be got from loose alluvial soil.
"A abort stretch of snrh road wn
treated in 1SW to one heavy applica
tion of oil: the dust was kept down
that e,on. In 100. In July, another
heavy application wh put on and it
commr need to pack and Is bow a g3l
road. A lighter application next nm
mer with some buildlna tip will vi
Jently make it an erelleiit rnal.
"Quicker rent are tth''n'-A r
potting on torn sand or san'ly l'a
vial road, a e'irfacin of f!rtnr na
terial and pa Vif! down firmly 1o-e
Oil.Bt. But hi'e a ros4tl fho-iH
porotm eoo'irb to ab"rb tbe hot nl
to a d'Th of io'it an lnh. the
surface may te too l.bt to do thi.
n bi'h c- a th'n in-ftf f hrr
Hill r T"1r 1 ' ! ! -V -.
Ui ill pv.k "be in).
"Our Mr. Glover had a auction of
road running out of Culion made of
laie.tone; the surface was very com.
pad. He spread over it a thin layer of
nai before oiliug and got good re
sult. Tisht clay road thut are smooth
and hard and free from dust when the
oil l U be. applied should be treated
in the uiiip way, the aud layer to be
from one half lu oue inch thick.
It U useless to apply oil to a road
the niuteriul of which is strongly
chorged with alkali. The alkali unites
with the oil. muklug a soap which tbe
first ruin dissolve and carries off.
Such a roud should be surfaced with
some good material before oiling,
"It la necessary to have tbe road-bed
as well drained for an oiled road as
It la for a ruacadamlied road; the oil
will keep tbe water out from above
but provision must be made agaiust
Its coming in from below.
"It Is necessary that all the loos
coverlug of tbe road shall be saturat
ed with oil and a penetration secured
Into the firmer surface below, the
deeper the better.
"It Is necessary for good results
that the surface of the road should be
perfectly dry and the warmer the tem
perature the better the oil penetrates
and unites with the road material. For
this reason It Is better to apply the ol
between the hours of 9 a. m. and sun
set. "Tut oil Is applied hot from 200
degrees Fahrenheit up. As oil and wa
ter will not mix well, It should not be
upplied on a wet surface. The oil
should run as freely as water and sat
urate the ground as quickly, hence the
benefits of heating. When near the
refineries the oil is secured at a tem
perature of from 250 to 300 degrees.
"At San Bernardino there Is a heat
ing plant with tanks containing a car
load and the oil Is heated by steam
coils to a temperature of about 200
"The hot oil Is run from the tanks
into oil wagons holding about twenty
barrels of forty two gallons which re
quire two to four horses to draw to
place of distribution, according to con
dition of roads, distance, etc. We have
taken oil five or six miles from place
of heating. Ten to twelve miles I
should say would be the practicable
limit. And If the distance is even as
much as six miles I would suggest that
the hauling tank be jacketed to retain
the heat.
"From the oil wagon the oil is run
into a distributor and sprinkled or
poured over the road. The California
Dustless Roads company makes a ma
chine that hitches on behind the wagon
and distributes the oil over a strip six
feet wide, three strips wide being the
usual width of application. This dis
tribution has openings 6 inches apart
opened and closed by valves operated
by levers. It also has stirring fingers
and drags for going over the road af
ter the oil is put on. to mix the dust
and loose covering of the road with
the oil. This was designed for dusty
roads for laying the dust with oil in
place or sprinkling with water. We
have noted before that this was the
original idea in using oil on roads.
The machine did fairly well on loose
roads but when it came to building one
hard and smooth and free from loose
material, it worked very imperfectly.
"After a wagon load of oil is distrib
uted as above and while the wagon is
going after another load, the man who
operates the distributor as soon as the
oil has soaked into the road all It will,
runs the distributor with draws down,
or some implement that will stir the
loose material backward and forward
over the road until the oil and dust
and loose covering are thoroughly mix
ed. These operations are continued un
til the whole road is covered.
"We have found that an ordiuary le
ver harrow In which the teeth can be
well slanted back does very well in
this connection on a loose road, using
this to go over the road just before oil
ing to smooth and slightly furrow the
surface to hold the oil, and afterward
to stir and mix the same. But for
quicker and more thorough work on
the average road I have designed a
stirrer in which the fingers or teeth
have an oscillating or lateral as well
as a forward motion. This causes
them to cross backward and for
ward the straight lines in wh'.cB the
oil is put on.
"After the road Is so gone over
there will be places that have too
much oil are sticky and other spots
f ' 1 1
4 . V sail afar -r ' . ' , f.- - ,
where ibmk boles bad commenced to
form or where there was an unusual
amount of dui that have not euousU.
Thes spot are gone over again. On
places having too much oil some dry
dirt from the side of the hoad I light
ly spread or If it la a graveled road,
some frebh fiuely screened gravel or
sharp sand is sprinkled on, just about
enough In each rase to take up the sur
plus oil and no more. Ou loose spot
requirlug more oil, additioual oil I
run and with shovel or hoe aud rake,
Is thoroughly mixed with tbe loose
material entirely to tbe bottom of tbe
hole. This soon pucks down from the
"While the oil la being applied and
stirred Into the loose covering of tbe
road, travel should be kept to oue side.
In some cases It may be necessary to
r ?
oil one half of the width while the tra
vel is on the other half, and then turn
it on to the oiled half while the bal
anve is gone over. The next day after
oil is put on a road travel can be re
sumed. "As before noted the quantity of
oil we put on a width of sixteen to
eighteen feet is from 100 to 150 bar
rels per mile. If the surface is very
loose more than 150 barrels may De
required, the rule being to put on all
that the road surface will take up.
It the work of putting on the first ap
plication is thoroughly done much less
oil will be required the following year,
in most cases not more than one half.
In the case of a piece of road built in
1899, not more than one quarter of the
oil used in the first application was
needed to put it in good shape in 1900.
"The oil we have used is a residuum,
after the naptha, gasoline and kero
sene are extracted and has a gravity
of about 17 degrees, being rich in bi
tumen. The bitumen or asphalt base
is the most valuable ingredient in the
oil for road making; coming directly
from the stills it is entirely free from
water. If crude oil is used it should
be an oil right in bitumen and if it
contains much water it should be sub
jected to a heating process to drive
it off.
"The cost of crude oil f o b Los An
geles is even greater than the Beau
mont product delivered in New Or
leans by railway freight, at present
rates a barrel of forty two gallons
costing 95 cents there while the Beau
mont oil can be delivered in New Or
leans in tank cars for less than 75
cents per barrel. On the roads near
San Bernardino the cost of hauling
and sprinkling, including all labor, va
ries somewhat from $15 per miie.
"A correspondent asks for a com
parison between oiling roads and in
sprinkling with water.
"Sprinkling with water ts to keep
the dust down and if oil ts used for
the same purpose it is shown above
that we contracted to huve this done
for $204 per mile. This does not vary
greatly in many sections from the cost
sprinkling with water.
"It is rather under the cost of wa
ter here. Three and a half miles of
road in Highland, near San Barnar
dino. cost $1230. or $:;.".l per mile to
sprinkle with water for the six months
required in 1900. This is no doubt
above the average but is mor? ,ali.
factory merely for this purpose since
the dust is alway laid and the road
is never muddy as it sometimes is
where water is used. But since we
have gone beyond the dust laying pro
position and are using oil for roud ma
king the first heavy application should
properly be charged to construction
uc-couut and the maiuteuuute thereaf
ter, lu our climate, will be much less.
How It may do lu u climate entirely
ditteivut from our I a matter for ex
periment. We have long dry summers
and sometime but not always, wet
winter. Hut even our wet winters
have more sunshiue thuu cloud. The
road dry off between the rain.
"The severest trial of an oiled roud
would be a loug. contiuuedt wet spell
without chance of It drying aud un
der heavy travel.
"la such case the oiled surface
would likely cut through In placea and
If tbe material underneath was of a
nature to work up the road might be
-V L
badly damaged. Under such circum
stances it would be advisable to have
a thick layer of road material say ab
out two inches impregnated with oil,
packed down on a hard, firm roadbed
underneath, the latter well drained
and the road crowned without depres
sions In which water might lodge.
"A correspondent asks if oiling is a
success on macadamized roads. I
have heretofore cited a case where it
was applied to a road macadamized
with limestone with very satisfactory
results. In this case the surface was
too tight to aborb the oil and a thin
layer of sand was spread over the road
before oiling. This, when oiled, pack
ed down and made a very pleasant
surface to drive over. It also gives
evidence of greatly prolonging the life
of the road since the oiled surface
takes the wear and preserves the road
bed underneath. The south end of
this same road is within the corpor
ate limits of Colton and is not oiled.
This was full of chuckholes and loose
places last summer. Here wa3 an ob
ject lesson; on the same road all of
it macadamized at the same time you
passed from the rough ehucky and the
loose surface of one portion on to the
smooth, pleasant oiled surface and free
from dust of the other.
"Oil made the difference. We know
that one of the greatest enemies to
a macadamized road is long continued
dry weather such as we have during
our southern California summers,
unless water is used daily to sprinkle
it. The cementing property of he
macadam is destroyed and the stones
loosen and holes form. Oil appears to
prevent this and keeps the roadbed
"Another corrtspondent asks about
the use of oil ou bicycle paths. We
have not built bicycle paths with It,
but our oiled roads are good for bicy
cle traveling and a path so treated and
reserved for bicycle use, if built of
material that will pack down firm and
hard, would be about equivalent to an
asphalt road. Alongside the Southern
Pacific railroad track, where oil is us
ed to lay the dust through this sec
tion is a favori'e path for bicycle ri
ders. "The stickiness after applying the oil
which might damage a bicycle tire,
lasts but a few days and can be at
onie i-emedied and this plan is advis
able by sprinklinz the path lightly
with sharp sand just enough to tafc
ui auy KurpliiH oil. the sprinkling to
be done the next day after oiling and
the path then rolled. From fifteen to
twenty barrels of oil will be required
for a mile for a pa'h three fe-t ide.
actodlng to the thurutter of the ma
terial to which it I pplied. A light
dretsiug of five barrel to the mile
during the summer of the following
ear, with sprinkling of aud may be
found advisable.
Two a, of Determining the Weight
Ratio of Petroleum.
At this tune, when the air is full of
talk of oils, of various grade and grav
ities, it may be of interest to tome to
know the significance of the usual ref
erence to specific gravity by degree and
by decimal figure.
There are two ways of defining the
gravity of oil; one is the decimal ex
pression of actual comparison in weight
-I - : '; .
- ;
: V
with water, and the other is a scale of
degrees, placed upon a hydrometer and
the depth to which this instrument sinks
in the fluid is named as the degree of
gravity. The Baiunc scale is generally
used in this country. The hydrometer
which is made to float in an upright po
sition, is marked ten degrees at the point
it sinks in pure water at the temperature
of 6o degrees, Fahrenheit. In lighter
fluids at the same temperature it sinks
farther and is graduated up to the re
quirements of the very lightest liquids.
All weights are compared with pure
water, which is the most common and
accurate standard. Ten dcgiees Baume
is the indicated weight of water which is
unity, or 20 degrees Baume is a trifle
more than nine-tenths the weight of
water (0.93,13). An American gallon of
distilled water weighs approximately
8.33 pounds. The following table shows
the actual weights of liquids of various
gravities at fio degrees Fahrenheit. They
are not mathematically exact, hut are
acepted as near enaugh for commercial
60 ....
70 ....
Specific Weight.
Gravity Gallon.
. 1. (water) 8.33 lbs.
. 0.9333 7.78 lbs.
. . 0.8750 7.29 lbs.
, . 0.8.-35 6.86 lbs.
. 0.7777 6.48 lb.
, . 0.7368 6.14 lbs.
0.7000 5 82 lb.
. 0.6666 5.5S lbs.
00 0.6222 S-.lo ib
To find the actual ratio of gravity
when only the hydrometer test is known
a simple rule is to divide 140 by 130 plus
the number of degrees. Thus, 140 di
vided by 130 plus 20 equals 0.9333
the specific gravity at 20 degrees Baume
To determine the degrees when the spe
cific gravity is known, divide 140 by the
specific gravity and subtract 130. Thus
140 divided by 0 0333 minus 130 equals
It will be seen therefore that when any
oil is mentioned as being of say. .9218
as the Texa- product that is it actual
weight compared with water and Baume
call- would show nlHint 22 degrees, the
former bring it actual ratio of weight.
ompar-d with water, and the latter
Petroleum GarrtTe.
simply the hydrometer ecale Indica
tion. Petroleum C.azeMe.
$1.00 PER YEAR.
The umouut of luuiiey luventtj ia
l.ie petroleum busiues iu the Timed
Mates u enonuoiL. The folluwiu es
1 mute huve receutly been made by
iouservutlve opera tor, uud are
thought to be a nearly reliable a It
I possible to get them:
. Production thut I, tuklug the
crude oil from the ground rig, tool
machinery, etc., J.'iiO.OOO.OOO,
lu pipe Hue, refineries, tuuk. tank
cura aud necessary adjunct, $000,000,
Number of men employed la actual
production of oil, 73,000,
Those who depeud upon production
of petroleum for a livelihood, 175,000.
Wells drilled from first well In 1859
to Januury 1. 1901. 157,000.
Cost of these wells, $392,500,000.
Estimated production, barrels of
crude petroleum form 1851 to January
1, 1901, 1,000,000.000.
At average price of total production
during 40 years, $2.77 per barrel, total
value of this output would be $2,770,
000.000. Exports of petroleum aggregate on
an average yearly, $50,000,000.
Miles of pipe line, 76,200.
Number of tank cars,, 12,100.
Tank steamers currying product t
Kurope, Asia, India, China, Japan,
Australia, Africa and other countries,
First oil lease of record, between J.
D. Augier and Brewer, Watson and
Co., lu Cherrytree township, Pu., In
First pipe line laid in 18G2 to trans
port oil from the Tarr farm on Oil
Creek to the Humboldt refinery. At
this time the oil was hauled by team
sters at a rate of about $8 per barrel.
The pipe line rate was to have been
$1 per barrel, but the teamsters tore
the line up.
Iu 18d3 a well wus drilled on a
piece of stony ground on the east side
of Oil Creek, which has produced oil
to the value of over $4,000,000.
The deepest well ever drilled was put
down by the Forest Oil company at
West Elizabeth, 12 miles from Pitts
burg. It Is 6,000 feet deep.
Two Hundred Are Engaged In Carry
ing American Oil.
A tank ship may be described as a
steel marine Goliath, divided into
steel-walled, air-tight, oll-tlght com
partments, located forward of the mo
tor section and living rooms. It is
loaded and unloaded by pumping the
oil direct to and fro between the wharf
reservoirs and the compartments of
the ships. Each compartment holds
on the average 140,060 gallons of oil,
and each tank ship has from twelve
to twenty compartments. Aft of the
compartments are the engine and the
boilpr rooms which the oil can only
reach in case of extraordinary wrecks.
Aft of the motor power are the liv
ing rooms. A spirit of automatism
prevails on the tank ship, so regulat
ed that the oil compart
ments are filled up without wasting a
drop. The tank ship Is loaded to the
shell, from keel to amldshsips, deck,
except that, far forward. Is a dry com
partment for other freight.
The highest type of tank steam
ships Is found In the "Tuscarora"
class, carrying 2,500,000 gallons of oil
in bulk. The twenty oil compartments
are connected by a complete system
of pipes with the pump rooms, where
are powerful duplex pumps for band
ling the cargo, with connections to all
the sea valves and manifolds. About
six hours la sufficient to discharge the
cargo. The ten inch mains have bell
mouth suction connections fitted with
independent valves tested for an oil
pressure of 400 pounds to the square
inch, and designed to atand the action
of salt water and naptha. They are op
erated from the upper deck by means
of valve rods fitted with connections.
Tbe square Iron boxes one sees on the
deck of tank ships are expansion
hatclxH over the tanks. In which the
oil risen and falls with the barometer,
or, as it is made to expand or contract
by the atmosphere.
There are about 20ft tank ships en-Kag'-d
In the transport of American oil.
most of them hulling from New York.
Philadelphia, and Baltimore. In ad
dition. .".Oft oil cask refuel ire engag--d.
Tbla great fleet of 5K TMmH
handled ia i:"i the enormous to'al of
one billion and a half gallons of oil.
mostly refined, a frattioa of it, 114
million gallons being rnide oil. Ma
ny of thte i,hin carry othi-r cargo on
the return trips.
Four tank ulilp which left New
T'trk l1 v-ar load'-d i h t,rln ar
iiie at tbei- d'Mina'ion without a
t r- of the Ktr of p" roleu m and de-!in-.-
thejr rro in perfect roa
ttition. fine t k r k .hip tkke oil ia
nlli fnn rh:ht4elpti;a to faWatta.
t,ere 'ifc1. :th mal for Sifiaapore.
! it i leaned an4 t b-a take oa
.pi.-e. tni fbmira!c for New Tork.
st:v. !ki t tip: !'. nn;.r
ii'-- vr.n Tr.n

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