Newspaper Page Text
WATEKBLTRI EVENING DEMOCRAT MONDAY AUGUST 9, 1897
COLONIAL SERVANTS. ETha Kind of Help They Had tn Early New England. jBfenlala Were In Sonc Cases Trnni parted Con viota agd Malefc- tors Who Sold TliemseJves Into Servitude. A GREAT CHERRY ORCHARD. Domestic service In America has passed through, three distinct phases. The first extends from theearly col onization to the time of the revolution; the second from the revolution to about 1830; the third from. 1S50 to the present time. ' During the colonial period service of every kind was performed by trans ported convicts, indentured white servants or "redemptioners," "free will ers," negroes and Indians. The first three classes convicts, redemptioners and free willers were of European, at first generally English, birth. i Protests were often made against this method of settlement, both by the colonists themselves and by English- . men, but it was long be i-e the English government abandoned the practice of transporting criminals to the Ameri can colonies. 1 . Of the three classes of whites, or Christian servants, as they were called to distinguish them from the Indians and negroes, the free willers were evidently found only in Maryland. They "were received under the condition that they be allowed a certain number of flays In which to dispose of themselves to the greatest advantage. It is impossible to state the pro portion of servants belonging to the two classes of transported convicts and re demptioners, but the statement is ap parently fair that the redemptioners who sold themselves into service to pay ior the cost of their passage constituted by far the larger portion- These were found in all the, colonies, though more numerous in the southern and middle colonies than in New England. In iVh-giaia and Maryland they outnum bered the negro slaves until the latter part of the seventeenth century. In Massachusetts apprenticed servants, bound for a term of years, were sold from ships in Boston as- late as 1730, rhlle the general trade in bound whit servants lasted until the time of the revolution, and in Pennsylvania even . Km til this century. ' The first redemtioners were natural- , of Englishbirth, but after a time they i iJs'ero supplanted by those of other Rationalities, particularly by Germans , tad Irish. As early as 1718 there was a complaint of the Irish immigrants in Massachusetts. I It has been said that a great majority pt the redemptioners belonged at first to a low class in the social scale. A con siderable number, however, both men and women,' belonged to the re spectable, even to the so-called upper Class of society. They were sent over to prevent disadvantageous marriages, to secure inheritances to other members cf a family or to further some criminal scheme. ! Many of these bond servants sold themselves into servitude, others were 'disposed of through emigration brok ers and Etill others were kidnaped, be ing enticed on shipboard by persons called "spirits." The evil of "spiriting way," both children and adults, be bamo so great that in 1664 the commit jteo for foreign plantations interposed, sind the council created the office of register, charged with the duty of keep ing "a record of all persons going t America as servants, and the statement that they had voluntarily left England. i"hla act was soon followed by ancythep llxing the penalty of death, without benefit of clergy, in every caee wher persons were found guilty of kidnap ing children or adults. But even thesa extreme measures did not put an end to the evil; and it is stated that 10,000 persons were annually kidnaped after the passage of the act. ! The wages paid were, as a rule, small, though some complaints are founi, fespeolally in Kew England, of high Wages and poor service. More often tie iwaea were a mere pittance. Elizabeth jEvans came from Ireland to serve Joha Wheelwright for three years. Hep vtagee were to be three pounds a year And passage paid. Margery Batman, jfctter five years of service in Charles town, wasi to receive a she goat to hel fcer in starting life. Mary Polly, accord ing to the terms of her indenture, was o serve ten years and then receive "three barrels of corn and one suit of bedstone and. one suit shirts of dowlcs And one black hood, two hif ts of dowlas And shoes and hose convenient." Domestic Service. 1 1 o w am Immense Crop Is Handled on a. California. Ranch. Probably there is no better known and certainly there are few larger ranches in the state of California than that owned by the Meek estate. It is situated a little way outside the city of Oakland and it covers a huge tract of land between San Lorenzo and Hay wards. It is spread over 3,300 acres of some of the finest iruit-beaxitg c. untry on the Pacific coast. A thousand acres of this extent is in fruit, for the most part cherries. The ranch is owned and controlled by the two Meek brothers and their sis ters, how skillfully maybe known from the fact that in spite of hard times and a depressed market there has never been a year when it has not- paid, and paid liberally. A full crop of cherries from this wonderful orchard will bring its owners anywhere from $30,000 to $35,000. The season's cherry picking goes on at a great rate, and a little army of pickers toil from tree to tree, stripping the branches like a swarm of locusts. The sight is picturesque, for the pickers come by families and live in the cheTry orchard in a small village of tents. At the heig-ht of the season near ly 150 pickers are employed. They are of all ages and both sexes, as the work is of such a nature that it can be per formed as well by women as by men, as well by a ten-year-old girl as by a grown man. The pickers are, of course, boarded at the expense of the ranch, and besides are paid from 75 cents to a dollar a day. so that a wife and two or three children can make as much money during the few weeks of the picking season as the head of the house can earn during the entire year. After the pickiDg the cherries are taken over to the packing house and handled at once. The riper cherries are sorted out and put -upon local markets, while the more backward are shipped east. The force of packers can dispose of 420 boxes per day. Two thousand boxes go to the car load, and must be hurried to their destination as speedily as possible, for there is no fruit that loses its flavor quicker by overkeeping than the cherry. Por the same reason the boxes must be rapidly marketed, for they will not keep many hours in the heat of an eastern summer. There are plenty of difficulties in the way of getting the California cherry upon the dining tables of the eastern consumer, but with ordinary careand a fair season the prices obtainable are not bad. In Chicago a ten-pound box of California cherries can be made to bring a dol lar if properly handled, while in New York, though the eastern local market comes into competition, the same qual ity will sometimes sell for 12 cents a pound. San Francisco Wave, , , "THREAD TOOTH. KANSAS-WIND ST0EMS EXPERIENCES THAT HER CITIZENS LIVE TO RELATE ' i Another attempt to have the Tuiller ea palace rebuilt is being made in Prance. This time the movement is lied by the Society for the Preservation (of Public Monuments. " ; I Borden f ill Brand j Condensed Milk .Has no Equal-as An Infant food. FREE j on Application. New York Condensed Milk Co.n.y Dental Troable the Result of Vuing the Teeth in Place of Scissors. The dentist looked at the incisor about which complaint hadbeen made and nodded significantly. "I see," he said. "Thread tooth." The words conveyed but little intel ligence to his hearer, and, failing to com prehend their significance after a few moments' reflection, she asked what he meant by it, "You do a great deal of sewing, don't you?" he said. ' 1 "Yes," she replied in a bewildered way; "but I don't see " "And you bite your thread instead of cutting it, don't you?" interrupted the doctor. - - - - , :. '"I don't know " -- - "Well, I know. Of courso you do. .Nothing else could have made this tooth look as it does. Thi3 biting of thread is jthe most pernicious thing in its effect on the teeth that a woman can do. It is surprising how many of them have un consciously fallen into the habit. It would require only an extra second to take up the scissors and clip the thread, but the woman who sews lifts the gar ment to her mouth and with those sharp teeth severs .the thread, thereby gain ing a fraction of a minute, perhaps, but at the same time literally sawing the enamel of? her teeth. Gnawing thread onco or twice a day cannot possibly be harmful, y mi argue. Probably not. But when you bite it a score or more times a day and repeat that every day in the year tho effect is bound to be seen at last in what I call tie 'thread tooth.' "If it vras only the silk and fine cot ton that women bite it wouldn't be so bad. But you don't stop at anything. Why, the other day I was in), a house where a woman was sewing buttons on a child's shoe. The thread she was using was a'little less than a rope in thickness, but she bit it off just the same. Before I went away she said she would be around to see me professionally in a few days, as her teeth had been troub ling her. I asked her which one needed being attended to. She pointed out the one that) served as scissors, of course., I can't tell a woman's age, by looking at her teeth, but I do know whether she does much sewing or not." Chicago Tribune. .m the Effete East ths Stiirarhs that County tines Ars Moved by Cyctoni May be Regarded IVith Suspicion, but There Are Otliers More Wonderful. A Kansan abroad recently found a crowd that did not eeern to appreciate his conversation concerning the con spiracy of the foreign capitalists to compel tho populist farmers of Kansas to pay their honest debts, so he pulled out his slock of tornado stories, hoping to attract attention, says the Kansas City Times. "I saw a cyclone once," said he, "that picked up a straw stack and moved it a mile and put it back, straw on straw, as it vas." Two or three of the auditors yawned aDd the Kansas man tried it again: "Another time," said he, "I saw a twister suck sixty gallons of molasseg out of a barrel in front of a grocery store and distribute it to every family in town who had a bucket out on tho back step for the milkman." He cleared his throat and began again: "Back in the seventies, we had a ter rible cyclone in "Western Kansas. It blew the cracks out of the fences, pulled a cistern out of the ground, moved a township line and changed the day of the week." This last fusillade induced one of the listeners to speak up. He said: "I da not know much about cyclones, but once when I was at sea I saw a water spout pick up tons of water and carry It a mile and" "Hold on," cried the Kansan; "if you are going to degrade the conversation to the level of a common lying contest I will retire." And he got up and walked away pompously. Another man with an unblushing face told this story and expected people to believe it: "I was out in Kansas last summer, and the first cyclone, of course, I went flown in the cellar, like other folks. The next thing I knew the cellar went, too, rolling over and over like a silk hat. I was soon spilled out. With Infinite labor I crawled back in the teeth of the wind, intending to take refuge in the hole the cellar came out Df it. To my consternation, I found that that had blown away also." A prominent Kansan is accredited with telling this: "Tell you what's a fact. I have known it to blow twelve days and nights on a stretch and hold a sheep up against the side of a barn until he starved to death." Probably the story which better il lustrates the position of the populist Carmer in. Kansas than any one in re cent years, is this: KansaB Man (visiting in the East) : Yes, sir. Kansas is the country for the farmers. Ixok at her vast prairies covered with crops so heavy that they make whole counties sink down in the middle. 'Look at her corn crop, so vast that it crowded township lines into the river. Same Kansas Man (at the populist meeting in his own neighborhood) Fellow sufferers Dry weather. Hes sian flies and goldbugs prey like vam pires on our State. Our once fair state is plastered over with mortgages bo heavy that we have to bore a hole through them with an augur in order' to plant corn. Rouse, ye slaves!" A country editor not far from Sum merfleld, just after receiving a cord of wood, and a big simply of vegetables on subscription, dipped hia pen in the ink and dashed this off: "When you talk about there being a better state than Kansas, every potato winks its eye, every beat gets red in the face, every onion gets stronger, every oat field Is shocked, the rye strokes its beard, the corn pricks up its ears, and every foot of ground kicks." There has been a premium offered tor the capture of the man who started this clever Ho: "A Kansas farmer planted his farm in popcorn and gath ered it into his barn. The barn took fire, the corn popped aad filled a ten acre field. His old mare, thinking it a snow storm, lay down and froze to death." I-Hie Priie Flgyhtlns--Mrs. Maloney Say, Mike, what's this arbitration stuff I read about in the pa pers? Mr. Maloney I dunno exactly, but I think it's something like prize fight ing. They take it out in talking. In dianapolis Journal. He Whs Probably Slttinsr in It. "Why do you have a plush chair on your piazza in hot weather, Miss Julia?" "We have to have it. We. always of fer it to men whom we don't care to have stay ail eTeniDg." Chicago Rec ord. . . General Hancock's Vindication. When the gallant General Hancock, the Domocratic candidate tor President In 1SS0, said that the tariff was large ly "a local issue," he was much laughed at. But the votes of Senators of all parties during the last seurion have gone far towards justifying his remark. We have seen Southern Senators cal ling themselves Democrats voting for a duty on cotton and supporting the de mands of both the sugar growers and the sugar trust on the plea that they benefited their section. More recently a number of Republican ' and 'Populist protectionists, voting with the South ern Democrats, succeeded in getting cotton bagging, cotton ties and burlap seeks put back on the free list. Again it was the "local issue" that controlled. Again, principle v.'as spelled with an "a." Another Injustice. ' '-' "Where's your brother got to lately, Liza?" " 'E got ten days for knocking a pleeceman down," "Wot! Ten davs for one pleece-snan?'V-Pick-Me-Up, Out Of Humor. Editor Mr. Cose, your jokes have lost all their humor here of late. What's the trouble? Joe Cose I guess I'm not well. I've felt rather funny for a week past. Philadelphia North American. Sheriff (to trembling prisoner) Brace up! Don't let them think you are afraid to die. The Condemned (indignantly) I'm cot, but ugh! hurry and get it over. That chair looks so infernally like a aentist's, , WHEN MONEY WAS PLENTIFUL. During the Centennial in Philadelphia Some Conductors Fared Well. The conductor was in a reminiscent mood. "Speaking of hard times," he said, "the present financial stringency contrasts strongly with the great abundance of money circulated in this city during the Centennial year. At that time I was on the Girard Avenue line, and I never saw money so plen tiful. Why, people would get on my car, hand me a scrip note, which were then in use, and walk up front with out ever asking foT their change. They didn't want any. It was a common thing for us conductors to be handed a dollar note and told to keep the change. I know two conductors on this line who bought houses with the money saved that year. "But let me tell you of a strange thing that happened on one at my trips. An old gentleman, escorting several ladies, boarded my car and got seats up front. A few minutes later the car was jammed so that I couldn't move, and had' to collect fares as the people came out. Well, when we ar rived at the bridge the old gentleman and his party got out. As they did so he handed me a bill folded up with the remark, 'Keep the change." I thanked him, and shoved the note as it was into my pocket, thinking that it was a dol lar bill. Imagine my surprise when at the end of the trip. I looked at what he had given me and found it to be a $100 bill. To this day I don't know whether he gave me the note inten tionally or by mistake. I watched for the old gentleman as long as the ex hibition lasted, and looked in the pa pers for an advertisement, but I saw neither. What did I do with the bill? Why, about a year later my little girl died, and I used it to pay her funeral expenses. If the old gentleman Is still alive he may rest assured that his note was a godsend to me." Philadel phia Record. WHERE WOMAN IS EXALTED. Ulan Treats Her as Though Were an Angel and She Appreciates It. All plantation life is to a considera ble extent patriarchal, except that, in stead of the women being subordinated to masculine pleasure and aggrandize ment, as with the patriarchs of old, they are set on a pedestal and practi cally worshipped. It makes little dif ference to this modern patriarch of the cotton belt if his cuffs are frayed and his coat rusty, so long as his wife and daughters wear suits to church that are as stylish as his crops can pay for and their Tillage dressmaker can de vise. It is a feature of the day in the South as well as elsewhere that wo men are being better educated than men. In the Northern States of the Union this higher culture is tending manifestly to celibacy, but in rural lo calities through the South the girls come back from academies and col leges and accept the young men who stayed at home to work the planta tions, the same ones they would have married had they not gone away for the education the parents sacrificed so much to bestow. They know what ma terial these men are made of, and m the attraction between the eternal wo manly and the eternal manly the ques tion of learning counts for little. Lip pincott's Magazine. A WELL TRAINED DOG. It Knew What the Bird Was From the Feathers It Dropped. Colonel J. W. Burnett, in New Or leans, tells a story of an unusually fine bird dog that he once owned, the best dog, he said, that ever was In his pos session. He had trained the dog with great care to know a bird by the feath ers it dropped. Did a partridge drop a feather, the dog would take the scent and find the bird's retreat. One day the Colonel hit a wild duck, but only knocked out a few wing feathers. The dog sniffed tbem and started way. Af ter a little his master called him, but got no response, and, at the end of an exhaustive search of the neighborhood, went home, expecting the dog would come home later. But the dog didn't come home till a week afterward, when one day he appeared, thin ana bedraggled, just ablo to trot slowly along the road, but carrying a dead duck. The Colonel had saved the wing feathers whJ.eh he saw the dog last sniff, and, upon comparison, found that they had belonged to the duck the faithful brute brought home. Apparently the dog had followed the quarry until he found its roosting place, and nabbed it asleep. New York Sun. She Wis of the Same Opinion. The citizens of Guthrie, Okla., deter mined to present medals to three young men who had shown bravery in rescu ing people during the flood. A young woman who was getting subscriptions for this purpose came upon a group of several young men, among whom was McCartney, one of the men for whom the medals were to be procured. "Boys, I'm collecting money to buy medals for McCartney, Willis and Piatt. Will you help?" "Yes," replied McCartney, with a wink to his companions, "but, while I am willing to help in getting medals for Willis and Piatt, I don't think Mc Cartney deserves one. He simply fell into the river, and had to be helped out." , "Well, between you and me," confi dentially responded the subscription taker, "I don't think so either, but folks are afraid he might feel hurt if he was left out, so they, counted him in." New York Tribune. , Where It Took Place, "Where did the ball game take place?" asked the man who likes to talk. . "It took place," said the rooter for the home team, "very near the bottom of the list." Washington Time. Trying to Figure How U. S. tP CO. CAN SEIX THESE :-: PANTS :- In their South Window at $3.00 and $.400. If you need a pair of TROUSERS, now is a Good time to buy. They are all Wool or Worsted and material that wiJI Wear. 0STCOME IN THIS WEEK. Upson, Singleton & Co. Main Entrance, 89-91 Bank St ELEVATOR ENTRANCE, 84-86 South Main Street FOUND HIS WIFE AFTER 47 YEARS. i. TRle That Frorea Fiction la no Strnnjcr Than Truth. A romantic story developed recently it Wilder's, Ind., by the arrival of (Villiam Easley, living near Elkton, (Cy., to claim his wife after an absence f nearly forty eight years. Easley left his wife, a bride of flf :cen months, and a babe iu the cradle in 1849 to seek a fortune for his fani- ly. He sold his property, and with 1,000 started overland for the Pacific ;oast to prospect in the mines. He wok up a claim, and letters to his wife :old of promised success. He was gone i year when his letters stopped. The jvife did not despair, but months apsed into years, and still E'asley was lot heard from. Mrs. Easley, after :en years of waiting, concluded that ler husband was dead, and live years ater she again married and moved to Indiana. Her second husband died in 1.896, leaving the widow in indigent .ircumstances. Easley having learned that his wife, ivhom he believed dead, was living, ind the sequel was that he found the Dride of his youth in Wilder. Easley laid be received advices in California Jxat his wife was dead. He went 'rota California to Todd county, Ky., ivhere he is the owner of a large farm, ind where the aged couple will spend :helr declining years. The Value of Notf as Foot). It is popularly believed that nuts are ndigestible, and doctors agree that luts and raisins after a full meal, or rich nut cakes, puddings or fritters, ;ause dyspepsia; but this is because :hey are eaten as luxuries after the ap petite has been satisfied. Nuts, if well nasticated, and eaten not as a dessert, out In place of other food, are more lutritious and sustaining than many fruits and vegetables, and are said to e specially valuable as brain and aerve builders. They may be eaten uncooked, in the usual way, or in loups, sandwiches, salads, or cooked ivlth vegetables; for instance, egg plant ivith nut stuffing. Peanut or chestnut landwiches are an approved delicacy. Spontaneous Comhustlon. ' Spontaneou s com bustion was form erly much doubted, but there is no question nbout its occurrence. It is more com mon in damp hay than in dry. Gar man investigators find that if 'the in ner temperature rises above 122 de grees F, or smoke appears, water is the only remedy. Spontaneous com bustion seems to be caused by germs yf bacteria that need oxygen for their jrowth. The danger is therefore avoided by excluding air from the af fected mow or stack e far as possible. AWell, and fcow did you sleep last njght? Did yovt follow my advice and begin couutlac? B Yes. I cormted up to 13,000. A And then you fell asleep ? B No, then It was time to get up. fid-Bits. aMAWWnrtn1W?TrflOMfM11F fniH JOHN M0RIARTY & CO. m 135 TO 169 EAST MAIN ST. THE TALK OF THE TOWN. How soon are you going to build ? When will you break ground? and a hundred other questions are asked daily by interested citizens, skilled mechanics and intelligent labor. The plaus and specifications for the Xow Opera House and Business Block are all completed anf operations will begin in a few days. The beginning of the end of "hard times" has come. The sun of prosperity is bursting through the clouds which have darkened the in lustrial sky of this country for the rast four years. Wheat and corn and stocks and bonds are already advancing; the tariff bill is in : force and will materially increase the pricj of imported goods. This will open our own factories ; the people will go to work we hope for living wages and all will be well. Higher prices will shortly rule for all Lirdi of mtrcbundife ; therefore we say, tak3 advantage of the extremely low prjei which prevail at the "Big Store" just now. We'll help yo-i and when we start to do a thing it's as good as DONE! You can get all the Furniture and all the Carpets of us," and you cau ' pay for them as you get paid weekly. We are more accommodating than all the ot' e.- dealers rolled together. Although manufacturers have materially advanced the price of drpets, WE have made NO advaace in ours, bat to stimulate irade still more through this month of August, we shall i! -A Make, Lay and Line All Carpets Free ! ARE YOU GOING TO BE MARRIED this y ar? Are you tl inking of going to housekeeping? If so, just look ul out complete.outfit for a ' I 4R.OOiVl FLAT, BEDROOM ASrD1NKIT0HENj $139 Fine Outfits, up to 91,000, at relatively low prices. Undertaking. Finest department, best service and most reasonable prices in the slate. NIGHT CALLS answered from District Telegraph Office, 6 East Stain street ' . JOH2ST MORIARTY Sc GO. 31 1 A TRUE HELPMATE. 5?": Congrenmao'i Wife's Schema to Gain Popularity. Great successes often depend upon small considerations, and the wife of a member of congress, a statesman to whom his constituents are wont to point as a man of the people whom flattery cannot divert from his old custom and associations, fully realizes this fact, says the Washington Star. A school friend who had not seen her since girlhood surprised and delighted her with a visit not long since. "How industrious you arel" ex claimed the visitor. . "In what way?" "1 don't know. I suppose it is fancy iwork. I know that you used to have a great aversion to plain sewing. But you must be very diligent indeed to have your work basket in this room." "Would you like, to know what I am at work on 7" "Certainy." "You shall see for yourself. Here It is." And she held up to view a half-knit sock of old-fashioned blue yarn. "You you don't mean to say that your husband wears things like that?" "Oh, no. He wouldn't think of wear ing them. I ha ve a whole lot that I will give away to anybody who will use them." "Do you do this for pleasure?" "No. It isn't at all for pleasure. It'a business, and I never occupy nrvself in that way except when it is absolutely necessary. But 1 always keep the work handy, and whenever one of the old fashioned, rural voters of my hus band's distriot comes to make him a call and you have no idea how many honor u with that attention 1 get it out end knit away for dear life. It is a good deal of bother, but it's worth it, for you real ly can't imagine how it pleases them!" Bnttercnps Are roiionou. It is not generally known that the buttercup, which is such a favorite flower with children, has poisonous qualities, yet such is the case, and an in quest has recently been held on a boy who, after eating some buttercups, died within a few hours with all the symp toms of irritant poisoning. The but tercup belongs to the ranunculaceae, and nearly all the members of this group possess poisonous qualities, chief ly of an irritant nature, though a few narcotic principles are to be found. Tho virulence of the poisonous varies very much, but there are very few in dividuals of this order which are inert. The various species of buttercups have all irritantproperties, and in the ab sence of better drugs they have occa sionally been used as 8icatories. Cow avoid buttercups, but hogs and some other animals can eat them with im punity. The active principle is volatile, so that when the buttercups are dried with hay or exposed to the air they be come inert. Luckily the buttercup, though pretty to look at, does not usual ly tempt children to eat it wholesale, otherwise cases of poinsoning might be less rare than they fortunately are at present. London, Lancet. FOREIGN PEOPLE. . , '1., ' The German empress is said to have reduced her weight decidedly by rigorous course of dieting, but looks pale and' much older. Her beautiful ; fair hair has become quite white an& her expression careworn. ! W. H. D. Hag-gard, the consul general for Great Britain in Tunis, whose wifej is an American lady, and who is a; brother of Eider, Haggard, the author,! has been appointed -British minister ati Caracas, Venezuela. , i. ; Archduke Eranz Ferdinand of Au-j tria-Este, who, now that lie is recov-i ering from consumption, has again as-j pumed the position of heir to Emperor! Francis Joseph, Is said to be the riob.j est royal personage in Europe. 1he Jast duke of Moderia "bequeathed $15,- , 000,000 to hinu I His majesty, Menelik of Abyssinia,! does not intend to be any longer behind other monarcha in the matter of znili-' : tary bands, says the London Musical Times. He has lately engrayed a Bus" eian artist, M. MUlovsky, f op the pur-i pose of organizing: a number of bandal among Ms regimeaats, ; Our 1897 wheels are stronger handsomer easier running than ever before the prices are right WESTERN WHEEL WORKS CHICAGO SEW YORK Catalogue free Agents everywhere irnMimrciiiiJ Caveats, and Trade-Marks obtained and all Pat-j ent business conducted iur moderate i-ees. t Our Office is Opposite U . S. Patent Officc j ana we can secure paicm. wmi ( r.mntn fr-i-in-i WacSintrtML Send model, drawing or photo., with descrip uon. w e advise, n tlcIlululc w noi, iree rharc Our fr not due till patent is secured. How to Obtain Pattts." witfcJ cost of same in the U. S. and foreign countries j sent tree. Address, -. ,,r ... C.A.SNOW&CO. Or. Patent Office. Washihqton. d. C.