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compass and signalings. After he has done all these things for two
years he is ready to become a senior cadet and registers for that pur pose. Australia demands the registration of every male at the age of 14. The senior cadet simply consists of drills—forty of them a year which include marching, handling of arms, musketry, physical drill, first aid, guards, sentries, tactical training as a company in elementary field work, and elementary battalion drill. Discipline is strongly in culcated. At the end of his fourth year, the senior cadet passes into the period of adult service, being assigned to that branch which he prefers, or for which he is peculiarly adapted. The Australian makes a splendid soldier. Canada, also has an extremely efficient system of military training for boys although it is not obligatory. In the majority of the pro vinces physical training, including the military drill, is a prescribed subject in all primary schools. Besides this, there is the Strathcona fund. This is a fund of $500,000, bequeathed by Lord Strathcona, for the purpose of promoting physical culture, military training and rifle practice in the schools of Canada. The interest from the fund is annually divided among various local committees throughout Can ada which distribute it among the provinces. Under these two pro visions Canada has greatly promoted its military efficiency, as has been demonstrated only recently in Europe. In France military training has been part of the curricula of the public schools ever since shortly after the Franco-Prussian war. The report of the Bureau of Education says that the school battalions were composed of boys over 12 years of age, whose fitness for re ceiving military instruction had been attested by a commission con sisting of two officers designated by military authorities and a school inspector. Germany was the first nation to establish universal military service. Prussia started it in 1814, and the other German states soon followed suit, thus laying a firm foundation for the present day militarism. Prior to this Germany had instituted courses of military training in the public schools, but after the Napoleonic wars the nation began such rigorous courses of preparedness for all males that the school courses were no longer considered necessary. 13.