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4 Educating The Indian. (Extract from the Report of The Commissioner of Indian Affairs.) ARE more and more recognizing the fact that the Indian in his tribal state was not withoat a system of education suited to his needs. The young men were trained in adventure, endurance, and skill. The young women were trained in making the camp and in keeping it in order, in providing fuel and in tanning and dressing skins and making them Into articles of clothing. In other words, the Indian youth was taught the things he needed to know in order to protect himself and to provide for his physical needs with due re fund to the prevailing conditions of his environment. While the chief aim of his education was to enable him to get a living, just as the chief aim of our education is to give us knowledge and the ability to make a living, still we should not overlook the fact that the Indians' system of education did not neglect cultural training. His tribal ceremonies, tribal lore, tribal handicrafts, and his native music are all evidences of his appreciation of the cultural side of life. While he constantly emphasized the individualistic point of view, he also pursued cultural occupations for the satisfaction they afforded he developed skill and courage for the purpose of advanc ing his personal standing in the tribe: and he acquired a knowledge of tribal ceremonies for the sake of individual salvation and influence over others. This individualistic aim of education was necessarily narrow and selfish. It tended to subordinate the welfare of the whole to the advancement of the individual. The progress of the tribe as a whole was not definitely planned and sought. The Indian under his tribal organization did not reach the state of conscious evolution. He was content to pursue the even tenor of his way with little thought of social progress or efficiency. In our policy of absorbing the Indian into the body politic of the Nation, the aim of his education must be broad enough to include both the welfare of the individual and the good of society. We must also take into account the development of those abilities with which he is peculiarly endowed and which have come down to him as a racial heritage—his religion, art. deftness of hand, and his sensitive, esthetic temperament 12.