Search America's historic newspaper pages from 1789-1963 or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the
National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress. external link Learn more
Image provided by: South Dakota State Historical Society – State Archives
Newspaper Page Text
more obvious generalizations of these facts and their expression in
language. So we see that the general knowledge first taught in school should consist of common ideas, common facts, and common conclus ions that are within the capacity and experience of primary pupils. As the pupils grow older they slowly acquire that power of observa tion, analysis, and generalization necessary to form scientific ideas. Principal IV. Knowledge can be taught only by occasioning the appropriate activity of the learners mind. This principle is based on the fact that knowledge is the product of the mind's action. Knowing is and act or series of acts know ledge the result. The mind acquires knowledge only by its activity. From the beginning to the end of teaching runs, as an essential condition, the learners activity, and hence that teaching is most effective that occasions or secures the best mental action on the part of the pupil. This leads to Principle V. The primary concepts and ideas in every branch of knowledge must be taught objectively in all grades of school. The psychical processes involved in sense-perception and other presentative acts show that the forming of an individual idea requires the presence of the object, for no idea can be taught without pre senting the appropriate object or objects to the mind. The same is true in the teaching of ideas, both particular and general. It follows from the above principle that no primary idea can be taught through its word. Every idea is the product of the mind's own action. The futile attempt to teach ideas through words is re sponsible for more unsatisfactory results than any other error of elementary instruction. The maxim, "Ideas before words" is excellent advice. The facility with which children learn words, especially as sounds, is constantly giving them new words which to them have no meaning. It is the teacher's imperative duty to see that these empty words are filled with their ideas, and especially that all new words, learned and used in school are associated with clear ideas. This principle of objective teaching applies to all grades of schools, not only to the primary school, but to the high school and 11.