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things do not belong directly to his employment but they arc a part of his equipment as a citizen and member of society. The vocational teacher should be familiar with the problems of those engaged in industry, should be able to correlate his instruction with ordinary every-day work and should be competent to aid pupils in choosing an occupation intelligently. He must be sympathetic and must have a general knowledge of industry and the application of school subjects to industry. Heretofore men and boys have usually learned their trades in shops or plants as best they could, for the most part without instruc tion. may be called the "absorption" method. The purpose of vocational education is to substitute for the absorption method the "intention" method—that is. a method in which learners receive definite instruction from one whose business, temporarily, at least, is that of instruction. This person may be a shop forman or a teacher in a school. Obviously the intention method is much more effective than the absorption method. At any time there may be a mixture of the two methods in a system of trade education and this may be a material advantage. The shop teacher must be familiar with and able to perform the shop processes which he wishes to teach. He must be a skilled mechanic in order that he may impart manual skill successfully. The related-subjects teacher is concerned with the teaching of mathematics, drawing, science and various other subjects which all tradesmen must know. He does not necessarily have to be as skillful with his hands as the shop teacher but he must thoroughly understand shop processes and the application of the subjects he teaches to those processes. Without practical shop experience he cannot successfully teach the related subjects. The good vocational teacher must know two trades—the one he is to teach and the teacher's trade. The fact that at present we are obliged to depend largely for vocational training on either those who know a trade but have not learned the teaching art or those who know how to teach but know no trade, makes teacher-training courses necessary. 16.