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yet agreeable to us. Not a dull monotony but an interesting variety
of speech and action is what we desire in our friends. And so may the teacher during the course of the recitation watch for and encour age the budding of each peculiar little form of genius. The general problem of the recitation is how to secure the maxmium of attention and expression from every member of the class. "Without attention there can be little or no learning. Involuntary attention is better than the voluntary sort. Attention with effort is divided attention. Involuntary attention really means absorption in the subject, an ideal condition for learning. But in order that the attention may be of this desirable nature the subject must change and develop before the mind. To hold the attention upon a fixed object results in either sleep or hypnotism. The child-mind is incapable of sustaining attention, because it lacks depth of experience. The crowning act of learning comes through expression, by means of which the nerve arrangements are made out and the work of memorizing made effective and permanent. The topic method of reciting is the most suitable method for the upper-grade classes. If carefully carried out it has several advan tages. It gives the members called upon to offer a complete discus sion. The discussion is given a logical center so that other members of the class can more easily follow the one talking and think with him. A written treatment of a topic brought to class and submitted for consideration by all is a valuable means of instruction. The question-and-answer method possesses peculiar merit. It admits of a sort of a rapid-fire movement up and down the line of the class in the course of which the least attentive or most sluggish pupil may be selected as the target. The members of the class should not be questioned in any fixed order but in accordance with a precon ceived plan of reaching those in greatest need of the exercise. No pupil ought to know when his turn is coming. Some teachers have a habit of wasting their precious moments in asking a long series of questions which the pupils can answer al most without thinking at all. It is noisy because the pupils answer readily and in concert and the teacher deceives himself with the be lief that it is worth while.