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THE GEM STATE RURAL.
VOLUME 1. CALDWELL, IDAHO OCTOBER 15, 1895. NUMBER 2. IRRIGATION ITEMS. One cubic foot of water per se One cubic foot of water is equal to 7.48-100 gallons, usually called gallons. cond ol time is the same as 7 gallons every second, or 450 gal Ions in a minute. One cubic foot of water per se cond will cover an acre one inch I ! ! deep in one hour. There are 43,560 square feet in one acre, therefore 43,560 cu feet of water would cover one acre one foot in depth. Two inches over a weir will give more than double the quantity of water that one inch will give. One square acre (O9 yards, 1 foot, 8 l 4 inches each way) has an ' area of 4,840 square yards, and a reservoir of this size would contain 27 cubic feet of water for each square yard of area for each 3 feet in depth of the reservoir. Rule:—Multiply length in yards by width in yards and by depth in yards. Multiply this by 27, and the result will give the number of: Farmer's Inches or cubic feet the Multiply this reservoir will hold. by 7 Vi and the result will be in gallons. One cubic foot per minute or oneFarmer's Inche under a head or fall of one foot equals .0016098 of a horse power. This multiplied by the number of cubic feet or Farmer's Inches and by the feet fall or head, gives horse pow-er of the whole stream. of 1893, while Professor Hurbert \\. Conn, who has been professor of biology of Wesleyan University, Middle of A REMARKABLE DISCOVERY. During the summer town Conn, for eleven years, investigations Chicago, in Fair, he received a can of milk from Uruguay, which had an unusua was his prusuing bacteria in milk, at connection with the world's 1 appearance and a peculiar bitter Without any thought of it taste. containing what the doctor had long been seeking, and it seems out of curiosity than any more thing else, he made a test of milk, which presumably had been the thoroughly sterilized before ship ment, as it had been on the road the for weeks. To his great surprise, says New York Tribune, in this milk, which had traveled nearly half way around the globe, Dr. Conn discovered the very thing for which he had been on the lookout, The bacillus which it contained, when added to milk, was found to produce a peculiar effect, sweeten ing and enriching it, and the effect upon the butter made from the cream so treated was especially good. The flavor of the butter ! was increased and its quality de- j cidedly improved. Dr. Conn w r as I naturally greatly gratified with the : I scientific spirit, he continued his experiments for months in order I to prove that the effects were uni form and that the culture could be depended on in every case. These . , , . , , experiments w-ere conducted at a ■ creamery near his home in Con necticut. : ! Previous to the treatment of the. I Uruguay milk he had identified Î forty different bacilli found in the milk . ea ch of which had been de signated by a number. The new arriva j W as consequently dubbed No. 41, and already "Conn's B. 41" I has attained considerable fame. In fact, it is far and away the most famous of the mük bacteriä up to date, and, though the investigation of the subject is constantly going B. 41" has thus far no rival on its throne. UNIFORM RESULTS OBTAINED In the long series of tests made under Dr. Conn's personal super vision near Middletown, the results i w-ere absolutely uniform. Every time the culture was sent to the ! creamery there was an improve ment in the quality of the buttei. ; This improvement was noted not ^ only by the butter-makers and the superintendent of the creamery, but by experts to whom the butter was sent for rating, and also at ex ' The i ex- i In the hibits of dairy products, first public test, made in February, 1894, the butter made from inocu lated cream rated eighteen points higher than that made from the uninoculted. same cream judges were two well-known perts, neither of whom had any i knowledge of the experiments. In ( make the tests as thorough as possible, in these ex was inten order to periments the culture tionallv allow-ed to run out in the creamery, and then a new inocu lation was made, butter deteriorated in quality when the culture ran out, and at once improved in quality as soon as a fresh culture was sent to the Invariably the creamery. During more than a year and a half there has not been one exception to the rule. As a result of a series of ex periments extending over a period of two years, the culture is now used regularly in 105 creameries, and the belief of Dr. Conn and others is that this principle which is the same that Pasteur discover beer, will bring about as great a revolution as the introduction of the centrifugal separator did. The claim is made that, with this process, the butter keeps better j . • -, , and retains its delicate aroma longer, and that it has so far in creased the price about 2 cents per pound. A stock company is now- being formed for its manufacture and sale and Professor Conn has applied for a patent for this process. The 'culture is put up in "pellets" some thing over an inch in length, with a diameter of about one third of an inch. It is nearly white in ap pearence, but in time becomes inert and turns brown. It is put up so that it can be sent through the mails, and creameries can be supplied for $5 per month. Professor Conn has already found in milk some eighty differ j | . ent varieties of bacteria, and, as an illustration of the astounding increase of this minute animal life, it is asserted that four or five hours not less than 75,000 present and 24 hours later, after milking, bacteria to the cubic centimeter were the same space contained 75,000 000, and this too, from milk that was comparatively free when taken from the cow. Surely it is a bless ing that not all bacteria are harmful. mills, pumps, and hydraulic ap pliances, has come to stay. Nearly Elevating Water for Irrigation. - Irrigation by water wheels, wind all of these devices can, and should be, worked in connection with re servoirs. Even a small stream of water, if steady, will keep a good ! sized reservoir supplied during the year, and opportunities for utiliz ing water for such purposes are abundant nearly everywhere. For elevating water to a consi derable height, and at a compare tively small expense, the hy draulic engine or ram, is being ex tensively used. The advantage of this plan is that, knowing the fall and the quantity of water that can be supplied or fed to one of these rams, it js easy to calculate how much can be raised to any given point. Some of these have been so much improved of late that they are now sold under a definite guarantee, and are giving excell ^ Pointer for Idaho Prone Growers. ^ as ^ een adopted on this coast ac cordin 0- to weight and width of & » u A standard of grading prunes the mesh. The meshes should be 2 inches or more in length for all sizes, the widths varying as stated in the table below; Width of Mesh for Dried Prunes. H 4 inches. Grade. Extras 40 to 50 to pound No. 1. 50 to 60 " No. 2, 60 to 70 No. 3, 70 to 80 " No. 4. 80 to 90 No. 5. 90 to 100 " Dé l J. 4 - The Italian prunes shipped from ^ estern Washington and West ern Oregon last year, nearly all graded 40 to 50 to the pound, and therefore are know n in the eastern markets as "Extras. - ' If fruit growers will take the pains, a large portion of our Italian prunes grad mg 30 to 40 to the pound could be packed separately and branded Also if put into neat Fancy. M and attractive paper boxes rang ing from 1 to 5 pounds each, they might be introduced into the con trade selling at the prices customary to that class of trade. fectioner s Fiue Vegetables. Some of the finest vegetables w-e have seen in the county were brought to the Citizen office Wed nesday by Tom Points, w-ho lives on the Little Weiser five miles up the valley. He and his brother Charley have twenty acres of as fine corn as a Missouri river farmer ever dared boast of, and as for vegetables such as onions, cab bage, tomatoes, carrots, turnips, peanuts, peppers, watermelons 'and so forth, they have a world of them, besides a small patch of fine tobacco.—Salubria Citizen.