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THE GEM STATE RURAL
VOLUME 2. CALDWELL, IDAHO, SEPTEMBER, 1896. NUMBER i NOMENCLATURE, METHODS, Etc. by w. o. whxtnkv, of PAYKTTK. Paper read before the last meeting of the Idaho State Horticultural Society. I consider the nurseryman the educator of the public, as to the names applied to the fruits grown. Even the most ignorant tree agent is taken every day by some i one as authority in this matter; therefore I consider it very im portant that the list put in his hands should be uniform and cor rect . Tree agents as a usual thing, have very little practical knowl edge of fruits, yet they often as sume the knowledge, which is accepted by the farmer as author ity. These meetings will greatly tend to overcome these errors. The day may never come when the zealous agent will wholly refrain from picturing a fruit or flower in rose tinted language when seeking an order. Neither is it at all certain that the public would be better served by Agents entirely without imagina tion and without extreme hope fulness. it Theusands of mothers, and children, now luxuriate upon j fruit and feel their soul expand under the influence of trees and flowers which would not have been bought and planted except through the unflagging efforts of the tree missionary, who had need that day" of all his imagina tion and all his rose tinted descrip tion, to induce the planter to di- j vert a few- dollars from the broad j and beaten paths of more land, i hay" and grain and more j more stock, into the pathway- of fruit, shade and flowers. The system of selling nursery stock by- traveling salesmen has long been assailed by- the agricul tural press, and condemned by That it has been abused many". is beyond a doubt: but no well informed person can deny that this system has carried horticul ture where otherwise it would still Manv a farmer be unknown, has bought a bill of nursery stock in sheer desperation to get rid of the agent; andin future years has realized that the agent best friend after all. was his I Simplicity of description and I nomenclature, especially for pop [ular use, is exceedingly desirable. In this respect promological prac tice must be conceded to be de cidedly an advantage, recognizing as it does but a single name for a » variety of fruit, Too many names fortI,esame thing is confusing, Take for instance the Kentucky Red Streak, the NewYork Pip P ,n ' and when we come to boil 'hem down we have just the com mon °^ d ^ en Ua\is. As best to till thç requirements as needed, the description of the i variety of fruit should be so con. cise and accurate that a specimen of such variety- may be easily identified by- means of such des cription, which is almost impos sible owing to variation in form, size, color, and even flavor, save in few cases of peculiarities. The variations of color on ac count of soil, climate, their ripen ing and keeping qualities, even in different specimens upon the same tree, from exposure or other cause, are such that there seems little hope that it can ever | become more than an incidental assistance in identification Of all the characteristics of a variety of fruit, bey-ond question that of quality is of primary im P ortance ? size and coloi coming in for their share in making them marketable and profitable. There is one question to solve which seems to me a hard one. It is the season ©f ripening of a variety. The same variety planted within five miles, may be one almost entirely different, the ripening in the summer and the other making.a very good winter variety"; no doubt the cause be ing in the elevation. o In union there is strength. ' * If we wish to accomplish a uni formity in names we must work together. If wc grow for mark 4 4 et we must unite on the kinds most desirable, and of these kinds grow largely, we will then be able to ship together in car lots; and 1 hope in trains lots. I can not icfrain fiom saying a few words regarding the fruit in terest of the state as I have view The ed it for the past years, present outlook for the fruit grow -I believe to be very en er, While 1 agree that of some insects couraging. the appearing which are troublesome to the and which cause some grower O expense, and a great deal of care, is by no means pleasant, yet with the proper attention, and the present advantages which r fc> we have in the growing and marketing of fruits, places us in the front. to produce the best fruits in United States: this has been dem We have the soil and climate the onstrated. As for prices, we have no cause for complaint, Our shipping facilites are good, and rates compared with other places, are not discouraging. I see from a report, that the freights from Sacramento to Chi cago are $300,00 and if refriger ation is used $90,00 is added, so by comparing these figures w ours, we have no cause to be dis satisfied. •ith In regard to excessive pro and|duction, all are agreed that there is annually sent to the market an over supply- of indifferent fruit. Buyurs and J where complain that not enough [attention is given to the product i I consumers every of high grade fruit, and that on consequently the market at cer tain times becomes glutted with an article, the sale of which, has ! to be forced. Gathering, handling, sorting and packing come in for their share of the criticism and condem nation. It is every fruit grower and horticul turist should give more care and attention to those important de tails. The best business should be adopted. mands of the various markets should be attentively" studied. Old and worn out machinery and tools discarded, and labor saving devices and implements should be employed so that the therefor obvious that methods The de greatest economy in labor can be practiced. kinds, in cultivation and manage ment, should be avoided and ex Wastefulness of all j j p enses reduced; competition is so keen> succe ss is impossible if we do nQt keep abreast with the t j mes both in thought and methods. will be welcome to the coming meeting of Horticultural Society. All the State Fruit and farmers especially growers should be present. A Model Orchard. If readers of the Rural who are lovers of a really beautiful orchard, can make it convenient to call at the home of Rev. R. M. Gwinn, four miles east of Cald com ]" e ^' am Pb He has some 2000 Plated. prune trees, mostly of the Italian variety, besides several hundred miscellaneous fruit trees, consist °f P ear > cherry , peach, plum, , nectanne > quince, apple, etc. trees aic set on an a ^ era g e a ^ out 20 ^ eet a P ait each way, anc * * ia ' e been trained to a stockv vet upright growth, and branched probably from the 3*4 feet g roun d- Not a straggling or lop sided tree can be found in the orchard, but the rows line up from every point of view in uni form and graceful array. Between the rows are several thousand raspberry-, blackberry-, strawberry and dewberry vines, which have this season returned several hundred dollars for the care bestowed ©n them, without in any wav impairing the vigor of the orchard. These will be per or two 1 to remain a y eat more and then will probably- be j removed, and either clean culture j be given the trees, or perhaps 1 clover be sown between the rows but not close to the trees. Every ' 'nick I thin S is done 50 near the that weeds and similar pests are simply ''not in it. They- are knocked out in the first round. The orchard is surround of time • - ■ f ! ec * Dy a rabbit and stock proof ^ ence an< ^ a shelter belt of shade It is well protected, and Cove trees. is rightly" named the ! Fruit Farm. 4 4 7 7 Flying is Solved. The Philadelphia Press says: * expedient is all that is now needed to make it successful. Practically, ''Flying is solved. The prob I lem is known. A mechanical ; flight is today- not more than five or ten vears off | i * * The Oregon Hop Crop. ! The Rural Northwest sa vs that j the hop growers of Oregon have fixed upon 25 cents per box as the price to be paid for picking hops - this year. It also says that prob ably not half as many hops will be picked this year as last.