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Retrospect* Covering; Three Quarters
of a Century. Written Expressly for the Gem State Rural by Henry T. West, One of the Founders of Greeley, Colorado, and P esideut of Union C lony No. 1, of That Place. Where sufficiently forehanded, the farmer would, at this time, or during the winter, kill a cow or an ox to provide the needed corned beef for the coming Kumm« r, part of the round, after having been cured, being smoked and dried, or • tried without being smoked, which was a splendid addition to the luchcong ««•I t out to the workmen during haying and harvest. SPRING WORK. The upland in this part of the country was quite stony, and many of the feue»« w< re» made of stone—regular stone walls. The heavy frost of winter would often topple over some parts, and a part of the regular spring work of the farmer was to look after and repair his fences, not only those of stone, but the rail fences, strengthening the weak places, rebuilding where broken down, that they could honestly claim that their fences were "Jiorse high, Bull In addition to making and repairing fences, the digg :vg of ditches, and the making of blind drains to carry off the excess water, a part of the spring work. The ditches were open drains through meadow land, while the blind drain« were through plowland, and were covered, so deeply that the plow did not reach the top covering of the drain. In constructing a blind drain, the ditch was dug with sufficient fall to carry « AT the water, and sufficiently deep to allow for a stone conduit to be built in it, by placing flat stones along the side of the ditch, and covering these with other flat stones, to form a channel for the water, and then filling in, on top, with other stones, to the heighth desired. This made a splendid drain, and many of those built sixty-five and seventy years ago are still doing good service, but the labor! I wonder, now, how any one could work as we did in building these drains: gathering all the stones suit able, and piling them onto the stone boat, to be hauled to the drain being con stmeted, but though every finger on our hands was worn raw and left bloody imprints on tlistones, we felt abundantly repaid, by the added sightliness of tl «• field, and the increased fertility of the soil. HO f f strong, and Hug tight. was EARLY DAY SOAP MAKING. When the wi ather had become well settled in the spring, the regular house cleaning began—the terror of all mankind, when they were expected to obey the l.euk, nod, order, or call of the housewife in tearing up carpets, beating and shaking them until free from dust or dirt, uncording and taking down bedsteads, that they might 1 e scalded and thoroughly cleaned, and then putting them up «gain, and this being done the leach must be set up, preparatory to making the vear's supply of soap. This leach was often a stationary bin or box, wedge shaped, and of a size !•• hold several barrels, supported on a slanting platform raise«! sufficiently hig i to allow a tub to stand under the lowermost part to catch the lye as it leached through the ashes, with which it was filled. This was, however, where soap was made by the barrel- a years supply- as soap like many other things, grew t-> bo better with age. The usual leach was simply a Hour barrel mounted on a slanting platform, holes bored in the bottom, some clean straw and a few twigs on the bottom, with a little quicklime, and then tilled with ashes; the ashes moistened while being put in, and then, after standing a day or so, water was poured on, pailful after pailful, as fast as it was absorbed until the lye began to drip 1 forgot to say that there was a channel cut or gouged out, outside th > barrel and down the platform to convey the lye to the tub or other receptacle placet! near to receive it. When a sufficient quantity of lye had been caught, and by testing, found to be of the right strength, (the test was that it bear up an egg) it was then poured into the soap kettle, the fire started, and the making of soap bega t by the adding to th«' lye such a quantity of refuse grease saved during the yea*, as the housewife thought necessary, the idea being to neutralize the Ive with the fat, so that there should not be an excess of either. The k«'ttle in which soap was made, was oftentimes neighborhood property, several families having united in its purchase. This jelly-like soap was often times all the soap used, either in washing clothes or the person, and after the Sunday bath the shiny face bore evidence of plenty of soap. was SHEEP SHEARING. Almost without exception every farmer kept some sheep and, when th»' weather became settled in the late spring, and it was deemed safe so to do, they were driven to the burn where they were tagged—dirty wool clipped off, and then driven to the riverside or pound, where they were washed. The sheep being gathered and penned at the place for washing, those who are to do the washing go into the stream, while the others—the stronger catch the sheep, one by one, as required, and raising it up, casts it as far out in the stream as possible, where it is caught by the washer. These outside also assist iu taking the sheep out of the stream after they are washed. This is sport for the youngsters strong enough to hold a small sheep, strug gling in the water, and learning how it is done, for it is quite a knack for men men one to hold a sheep, with his left hand under the neck, in such a way as to hold its head out of the water, and be able to use both hands to squeeze the dirt out of the wool. Aff«T being washed, the sheep are carefully let out on a grassy place, where there is no danger of getting their fleeces soiled again, and, when the entire flock has been washed, then driven to the cleanest meadow to dry, which is usually accomplished by the next morning, when they are again driven to th-> ! barn and sheared. The art of sheep shearing, so as to do the work expeditiously, save all the wool possible, and not cut the sheep, or otherwise injure it. has to be learned by practice, and it is not every one who is capable of becoming an expert, as it Continued on Pa^e II POLICY HOLDERS' COM MITTEE. THE of the Internation ' Committee, thru The promoters al Policy Holders which It is proposed to control the elections of the Mutual Life New York Life Insurance directory and the companies, have auspiciously launch The person ed their undertaking. of the committee Is such as to On the list nel command confidence. are six Governors, the head of the hierarchy in the United conservative labor leader, Catholic States, a such eminent lawyers as Judge Gray, Judge Parker, and Richard Olney, be well-known business men, ed That it will be sides Itors, clergymen, etc. the desire of this committee, if pow er is confided to it, to do the best that it can for the benefit of the 1, 000,000 policy holders of the two companies will be denied by none.— New York Globe, June 25th. Account Eagles Convention to be held at Milwaukee Wis. Aug 14 to 18, tickets will be sold at the round trip rate of 161.00 Date of sale August yth only, with final return lirait of August 22. R. FARRAR. Agent. Screen doors make hot wea We have them, all cher enrurable. sizes and styles, at prices to suit. Caldwell Lumber Co., Caldwell, Ida. -Bee Supplies of EVERY KIND 4 * A coriipiete stock always on hand INDEPENDENT LUMBER <&> MFC. COMPANY Caldwell. Idaho MURPHY & GARDNER, Real Estate, Farm Loans, Insurance Lave a large list of choice farm property in the fertile Boise valley. Oiler for sale town lots in Middleton at prices that make them the best investment possible in Idaho. Middleton, Idaho. * INDEPENDENT PHONE 11 5^3 ■ , TO THE • Vople of Caldwell and Vicinity. We wish to announce that our Spring Stock of Furniture, Car pets, Linoleums and Draperies is in, and is the Best Selected Stock in Boise,and for the least money. Our motto is Quality and we furnish it for leas money than many ask for medium stock. Mail orders given prompt attention. S dm Pi ,\1 u y J WgC'|| SOLE AGENTS FOR GENUINE OSTER MOOR MATTRESSES. STANDARD FURNITURE CO. 313-315 North 8th St., Opposite P.O. Boise, Idaho. . ^ Linotype Compo sition For The Trade O UR new MerjrenthalerLi type is now i„ succeS8f operation, and we are pared to accept contracts Machine Composition i ten, and eleven measure. ino pre for . In t-ight, 'r l J?. int ù aM ' n *«y , T le hijrh standard maintained in our other denar, ments will be maintained in tt,;, one. ,s Estimates Furnished on Application Miehle Presswork For the Trade O UR pressroom is in charge,.f one of the skilled Pacific Northwest. most higblj workmen in the Color Wwtt, Embossing and Halftones han dled promptly and satisfatorrlr. Estimates Furnished on Application. TRCAXTON PRINTERS, "Copper Plate Printers Caldwell, Idaho.