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S<ill Moisture and it* Movement«.
< Written for the Gem State Rural). Depart ( Hy Ellas Nelson, Irrigatlonist of the Idaho Experiment Station, and Expert In charge of Irrigation I vestigations by the ÎJ. S. nient of Agriculture in Idaho). n the irrigator constantly has to deal with soli conditions an appro elation of the translocation of soil Since various phases of water is very These movements are to gravity and capillary attrac Gravity acts chiefly through coarse sand or gravel or any advent -1 itlous Important. due tlon. open space In the soil. In line soils the force of gravity is not strong very the down- ! may be very rapid More frequent In porous soil movement ward and the losses great, irrigations are necessary on such soils as large amounts of water may | seep beyond the reach of the Capillary attraction on the hand acts In roots, j other upward. j all directions laterally or downward and comes in >s are to play where the soil partlch close together. In distributing It aids the up from During water through soil and draws the moisture the subsoil to the surface, when soon so that In the Intervals be ' 7 '" lr ' rlWl,,IIS capillarity Is con t> J Hinging moisture up from the soil is fine and may be drawn from rains aids downward reversed or water is applied It gravity 1 » carrying the water This movement Is deeper soli where deep water depth of fen feet Thl , a This fact many places where high bank or more. Is clea rly shown In along can« Is s are many feet above the surface water. moist of the strong e If capillarity were nough to bring moisture up clentiy rapid to meet the needs many tracts would need HU of crop« no Irrigation, The over Ihe grain« ar value movement 1 » spaces bet ween 1 filled with air; checked wher hoII hence, the the which vent« the pan may of an earth mulch more as a cover pre Hard porcolatlon soli greatly or less completely escape of moisture, entirely and any compact Inver of stop etard It. in all «I Interstices there Is a network of the soil among v the« grains. e contain some air but «oll all air has bei In n »«tu rated >n Without air the roots function do not perform i t| their and More then I ) W i»t a standstill cent of th apabie than the soil | H detrimental 81) water that of faking 11 p js to sixty per and half g - Forty ut half air cent water. Is suited to plant tests that I the «oll on the 1 ht condition bt= For Inst a st growth hav* TwJi nee. ma tip show th Falls t ract has a water-holding Per cent of Its f y 'ou a I to weight, whll® the prise < 'I this soil the open spaces com 4 4 per cent of its volume In remains quit» tlon. Sixty Partly, or 1 5 he prevailing ca of Its weight. amount In the sub It Is only for a few days after coin of moisture «nt under irriga )' per cent of the total per cent is «oll. Irrigation found (he draw n that more and only when subsoil has be 'ban this | s supply In too heavilv upon that there is ip SS * (he en i the a a compacting and ce- j menting together of the soil parti in some surface cause soils saturation of cles. This condition Is to plant growth and favors loss of moist u not congenial a rapid surface j no beneficial purpose • At the re. moisture serves ■j Inasmuch as It Is almost entirely lost by evaporation. Where we cultivate the soil must be rid of this surface water before the mulch is thorough ly effective. The essential thing for the Irriga tor to accomplish is to convey water to the roots, replenish the supply in the subsoil and in so doing not to saturate the surface. This we can not precisely attain in practice. How ever, by the use of the furrow, or j Vakirna system, it is possible to ban die irrigation water in such a man n er as not to wet a great extent or compact the surface. -— I he Horticultural Outlook in Latah County. ( By P. W. Darlington, Horticultural Inspector District No. 1 , Moscow, Before Farmers' Institute and State Agronomy Association Dec. 14. 1906). My topic is the Horticultural Out look in Latah County. very broad subject and it This is a seems nec cessary to discuss it under the fol Orcharding, and vegetable lowing three heads: small fruit growing, gardening. I almost hesitate to broach the j subject of orcharding, for no one has a better opportunity than the dis j trlct Inspector to realize the discouragement, eral disgust among fruit say general, but of exceptions, general yes worse, the gen growers. I course there are There are a few that are ho * dlng out and are still enthusiastic and confident In the business heart and I My soul Is with them, and uo doubt in there Is that the my mind but ;re is Prosperity in store for But I them. tlment in Ridge cannot express the sen general better than a Beat farmer expressed it to me. He said; "Fifteen years ago there of us that settled i were twenty-two this in 1 community. We all planted ! Inrse orchards and Invested sums of large j money in the orchard busi -1 Today these ness. , , } rnen are all bank ,u,,t and financially ruined and 1 the only »ne left am to tell the sad tale.'' ou rage nient has This disc In the resulted up of many orchards •he pulling pulling in this county. "P of orchards has be; regular 1 n fa !>n one of the farm t h ree practices years. in the last would orchards in en pulled up in two or and I make than 40 the that time. Now Jet a rough estimate that no I per cent, of the OSS county have be us Investigate. "hat has been (he c dition of affai Let us see con cause of this About fifteen years was what we might call a ion (cultural boom In this county At " ,at time there were a few small orchards In bearing and there was a good looal demand for the fruit from these orchards. The rs. ago there owmers of s were prospering; they ! making a good thing out 0 f I h-lr orchards, these orchard were for the wheat farmer, tln.es were exceeding* hard Naturally a verv Inra-p . J ' • large per cent of farmers branched out in the di i ' >1 ' tion of ^aat resistance and plant <>d ° rchard8 of various sizes Very little at this time _ , was known ' ' n< <M 11 ng the orchard business for , Us 0, ' allty - Furthermore first-class home grown nursery stock was dlf was neu R to get. a rather Indlscri varieties* which ' The consequence mlnate selection varieties locality, present condl uot only l„ the unwUe se _ of varieties, but later in the of a selection of were in a large Qimte and unadapted to this The causes of the Part inade tions lie lection lost r + J + £ ! j ,++ + 4 * About ProsDerous Farmer: ♦ All farmers who have bank accounts are not prosperous, but nearly all prosperous farmers have bank accounts. There is a sound reason for this, especially if your account is with the Idaho Trust & Savings Bank, which not only keeps the money of its customers safely, but leaves no stone unturned to help them in their business, with financial accomodations, assistance in their business affairs, in every matter in which our aid them. in I + to ) J + + + % 4 . X I + with and advice + experience can Call and see us, be your business large or small, or if unable to give us a personal call, write us. We have a great many custom ers who do all of their banking by mail, give special attention to all + + + + + + + We + + correspondence. IDAHO TRUST & SAVINGS BOISE, IDAHO THE BANK THAT PAYS 5 PER B. F. OLDEN, President BANK CAPITAL $200,000 Ot ' CENT INTEREST L. D. ALLRED, Cashier JOHN D. DALY, Vice-Pres. SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT Subscriptions for the MIDDLETON HERALD Subscription price'—per annum And new subscribers for the GEM STATE RURAL Official organ of the State Associations, Subscription price—per annum $11 Horticultural and Agricultural $ 1.01 Total_ . $21 Will be received at either this State Rural, Caldwell, i office or that of the Gem in combination, both for $1.75 Saving . If unable to call i in person, send stamps, _ ,, Payable either to the or the Gem State Rural Pub. Co. money order or your Middleton Herald Pub. personal check, made Co., unwise marketing of 1 Probably this latter thing else has the fruit. more than any ont nf hi y kn °oked the bottom . of the * r uit business 11 'n its present condition, very thing was allowed to market. an <J placed Any and e go on the scrubby and in. The small, apples i ferior I large, Th« 'vent along highly colored prize re was no inducement for , to come here and j simply beca what they with the apples. buyers usp th ... ° Ur fruits > f J did not know were going to get. They Pay top prices 0,1 gett ing inferior cause which ying about As I have horticultural • w heat farmer ^ow, how could not afford and take chance to fruit, I There is still 1 be,ieve has f the presen t Said ' another helped to conditions. at the time of times for the boom. Were exce cding]y hard ever - since these orchard u tUrei1 the re ma I ' »heat farmer b | T"™' *«•» o' excenOo itv. Airain tu I tional ,. Again the farmer direction of least enjoved Prosper s D ,. t np soon as I follow resistance Part of his The ne glected nuisance, . many are the and attention orchard i s greater "heat farming, j lected and a ' becomes a have said orchard and, thus, bein S Pulled UD °rchard , hat Again, there | s Is not chard the adapted cither f or a v, or for a a home orchard of frorT^^^ 1 0rchar d. is plenty large Pn ° De to tw ° acres poses, but f 0r co ° agb for h om e PUr - twenty arr* C0Ql merciaI mlnlmum Cres sh °uld or An Purposes , ab °ut the be Now We ianv orchards to ten acres. T large for home These are entirely: use and as is orchards they are not worth the tt that an orchard of this size demai: For commercial orchards they entirely too small and unprofital Po me the outlook for the fun seems much brighter than the p* The fruit industry up to the pres time has bee been r ather hut n an experiment. It: an expensive experin® one of much value to the fate generation. rieties mate and to get bno " ^ha.t if we are to get good fr bave °f work to do, we & CUltiVate ' prune > spray and fertile mUCh ° f which was thought unnef? former Iy. Now we know r what are best adapted to our We know wte market. good nursery stock, and To m * nd the present disco: r. h gement is th e best thing that coe ' it & wiR 1 frUit industry ' undoubtedly take some 7# t0 com P Iet ely overcome the nt conditions, still there is no do: .f mind whatever but that coco slowly^" imprOVe from tbis time( the tV; or rapidly in proportion tnnif ° rtiCUltUriStS graS P tbG 00 : a fforded by the present elf* "f out ot orchards tnferi is ti For it is orchards that are being d or up. (Concluded next week). Th cial Porward Club will hold a * the ReadlDgiW ' 16th, at 3:30 p. f e mbers are cordially invited All