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Thk Indian Advocate.
137 f pense of time and muscle by two men sawing it out of the na tive tree with a common cross-cut saw. The implements of agriculture were extremely primitive. Oxen were invariably used in breaking the virgin soil, hitched to a ponderous wooden plow, the mould-board of which was of wood tipped with a thin plate of iron. Not infrequently hoes alone were used in preparing the earth for the crop of cotton, flax, hemp, corn, tobacco or potatoes. Wild game was plentiful, and venison was fortunately nutritious and abundant. Thus began the Catholic pioneers of Kentucky. Little by little small "open ings" were made in the forest. The "settlements" grew into small villages, with more, or less trade at the rude country stores, young men and women were married, and little chil dren played in the dooryards. If their lives were narrow and provincial, compared to ours, these people knew it not. They were content, and contentment with their lot is pre-eminently a characteristic of Catholic peoples. And now,, as they grew in numbers during the years, other priests came among ihem, while the old remained. ,ln 1804 the Trappists first came to America, and settled near Cone wago, Pennsylvania. Removing from thence in :i8o5, they established another monastery near Holy Cross, in Nelson county, where they remained about five years. Shortly after their departure, Bishop Flaget was appointed to the Kentucky diocese, and entered upon his duties ,ip 181 1. Like Father Bridin, he was a man of apostolic zeal, and ere long semina ries for the education of young ecclesiastics rose around him, the chit-f of these probably being St. Thomas. Work began in earnest. It is impossible to do justice, in these pages, to the brave, unselfish missionaries who labored in the State at this time. Fathers Badin, Chabrat, Abell, Durbin these self-sacrificing priests were genuine apostles. Their missions were at first extensive as the State, and they hesitated not on account of rain, nor storm, nor sun, nor cold. Through the remotest