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236 The Indian Advocate.
of traders from St. Louis. This appears to be the first notice of the Kiowa as living on Red river which, however, may here mean the Canadian and is evidence that they were at this time on friendly terms with the Arapaho and Cheyenne, with both of which tribes they were soon after at war. We also learn from this notice that the St. Louis traders had already begun to come out to trade with them on the Arkan sas, although none were regularly established in their terri tory until some years later. The "Kaskaias" are probably the Kiowa Apache, or possibly the Wichita. We come now to the period covered by the Kiowa calen dars, the first important event of which is the massacre of a large number of the tribe by a war party of the Osage in the early spring of 1833. This led indirectly to the expedition of the First Dragoons in 1834, by which the Kiowa, Comanche. Wichita and associated tribes were first brought into official relations with the United States. When the troops returned to Fort Gibson, in the eastern part of Indian Territory, in August, they were accompanied by a party of one Waco, one Comanche, three Wichita and fifteen Kiowa chiefs or head men, of whom the artist Catlin says they were undoubtedly one of the most interesting groups that had ever visited the frontier. Invitations were sent out to the chiefs of all the neighboring tribes to come in to Fort Gibson and meet their visitors from the west. A number responded, and a council lasting several days was held under the auspices of Colonel Dodge, of the Dragoons, Indian Agent Major Armstrong and Indian Commissioner General Stokes, which paved the way for a friendly understanding between the eastern and western tribes, and for both with regard to the United States. A year later, in August, 1835, as a result of the friendly relations thus established, the chiefs of the Comanche and Wichita met the United States Commissioners at Camp Holmes, about five miles northeast of the present site of Pur cell, Indian Territory, and made their first treaty with the