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238 The Indian Advocate.
and the republics of Mexico and Texas. The usual presents were then distributed and everybody was happy. The peace thus made with the Osage and Creeks was never broken, although in after years relations with the Osage were somewhat strained in consequence of their serving as scouts j, against the allied southern plains tribes. The promised friendship was also kept with regard to the citizens of the United States until after the annexation of Texas; which the Kiowa and Comanche never ceased to regard as a distinct and hostile government, making a clear distinction between "Americans," i. e., settlers and emigrants from the north or , Kansas side, and "Texans," whom they regarded as a differ ent nation and their enemies, in having driven them from their best hunting grounds in violation of treaties and without compensation. ,"" The treaty commissioners on behalf of the government were Gen. Montfort Stokes and A. P. Chouteau, the latter being a member of the moted pioneer trading company. Clermont and Roly Mcintosh, head chiefs of the Osage and Creeks, signed, with others, for their respective tribes. Among, the witnesses were a number of officers statioued at Fort Gibson, including, among others, the commanding officer, Col. Whistler, the noted Capt. Bonneville, and Col. R. L. Dodge, who had led the dragoon expedition. The treaty was signed by ten Kiowa chiefs and principal men, three Apache (whose Kiowa names only are given), and four Takawoni. At this time the Kiowa were located on the upper waters of Arkansas, Canadian and Red rivers, in friendship with the Comanche and Wichita, who occupied much of the same ter ritory, but usually ranged more to the east and south. They continued to occupy the same general region until confined to their present reservation. Their war parties extended their raids far beyond these limits particularly toward the south. From the statement of Lewis and Clark, it appears that in 1805, while still located on the North Platte, the Kiowa had I.