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240 The Indian Advocate.
the name of "Soto," Chouteau is still held in affectionate re membrance by the Kiowa. Chouteau's fort on the Canadian was considered to be in Comanche territory. Shortly after the treaty with the Kiowa in 1837, he established what they regard as the first trading post within their own country, on the west bank of Cache creek, about three miles below the present Fort Sill, Oklahoma, but the trader in charge did not remain long. Another store was established nearly on the same ground by William Madison in 1869, after the tribes had been assigned to a reservation. In 1844 William Bent began building trading posts on the South Canadian, in the Texas Panhandle, near the principal Kiowa trails. They also traded extensively at various points on the Arkansas until their final removal to Indian Territory. With the treaty of 1837 and the building of the first trading post in their country, the modern history of the Kiowa may be said to have fairly begun. In the winter of 1839-40 the Kiowa suffered from the smallpox, which had broken out in the north in the summer of 1837, nearly exterminating the Mandan, and then swept the whole plains to the gulf. In 1840 they made peace with the Arapaho and Cheyenne, with whom they have ever since been on terms of intimate friend ship. They had already made peace with the Dakota, so that they were now on good terms with all the tribes of the plains excepting the Pawnee and Tonkawa, who seem always to" have been outlawed tribes, without friends or allies. The next notable event in Kiowa history is the cholera epidemic of 1849, which ravaged all the tribes of the plains. The Kiowa remember it as the most terrible experience in their history, far exceeding in fatality the smallpox of nine years before. Hundreds died and many committed suicide in their despair. , 7b be Continued.