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74 THE INDIAN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
of the reservations, but with little more certainty of peace than before. Again and again starvation was followed by fighting, nameless outrages upon the Indian by cruel outrages upon the white man. Whether Apaches under Geionimo in New Mexico, or Sioux in Dakota, it was the old story over again. Thus, with constant danger menacing the white set tler from the infuriated savage Indian, and constant outrage upon the red man by rapacious and cruel whites, the govern ment found a new policy necessary. This policy was inaugu rated by a strange and unusual sequence of events. In 1869 a sharp difference arose between the two Houses of Congress over the appropriations to pay for eleven treaties then just negotiated, and the sessipn closed with no appropriation for the Indian service., .The, necessity for some measure was ex treme: ,the plan was devised oi a bill which was passed at an extra session, putting twpsmillions of dollars in the hands of President Grant, to be used as he saw fit 'for the civilization and p,rptectionvpf the Indian. He immediately called to his ,. adjacomrrjissiori composed of nine philanthropic gentlemen rt" tooverlook the affairs of-the Indian and advise him thereupon. Ki This cpmmission served, wiihout salary. Another valuable measure followed,. At the next Congress at law was enacted forbidding; any more treaties with Indians, and thenceforth they became our wards; .not foreigners and rivals, as was practically .the case beffore. What, then, is the condition of the Indian today? In . .number there are.;scarcely more that two hundred and forty . - thousand, in,.ijhe, whole country. Of these less than one-fifth depend upojvthe..gQvernment for support. All told, they are fewer than the inhabitants of Buffalo or Cleveland or Pitts burg, yet they are notdying out, but rather steadily increas ing. They are divided and subdivided into. many tiibes of different characteristics iand widely different degrees of civili zation. Some are Sioux thee are brave and able and intel ligentthey live in '.wigwams or tepees. Some are Zunis, who live in houses and .make beautiful pottery, and are mild and