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295 THE INDIAN ADVOCATE.
from the mission buildings and the protection was not in demand in most of the missions. During the travel on land and on sea the missionaries and soldiers had to suffer in describable privations; sickness and death considerably re duced their numbers. Father Junipero and his faithful com panions persevered and in 1784, when he died at Mt. Carmel near Montry, Cal., there were ten missions existing and flourishing in California. Whenever Father Junipero or one of his companions esta blished a mission, a cross was erected, around which the Fathers would assemble their neophytes. Then a suitable Church was built to which the dwellings of the Fathers and Brothers were annexed, constituting the monastery. Into this enclosure no one except the friars was permitted to enter. There were also buildings suitable for workmen and for the Indians; besides workshops, store-rooms and buildings for farming purposes. As some soldiers had their families living near the missions, there were also separate buildings for them and for those Indians who would stay at the mission in order to learn their religion or some special trade. The Fathers would instruct the men who worked for them in holy religion; they would visit the moredistant settlements of the Indians and teach holy religion to them in their homes; they would select the best and brightest Indians, men or women, and send them to the missions where they would learn their catechism more thoroughly as well as a civilized manner of living. The women of the Spanish soldiers were to take care of and teach housekeeping to the Indian women, the men were taught by the Friars. lhese Indians, being sufficiently instructed, were sent back to their homes and others took their places at the missions. Thus it came to pass that the women of the Mission Indians were soon dres sing like their white sisters and knew how to cook, to sew and to do general housework. Even to-day a Mission In-