THE INDIAN ADVOCATE. 296
dian woman understands well whatever is expected of a
women in civilized life.
The men learned various trades; the Mission Indians had
masons, tanners, shoemakers, carpenters, weavers or farmers
of their own race. It goes without saying that they were
experts in taking care of stock, cattle, horses and sheep.
It is especially astonishing how. the Mission Fathers could
erect the large and beautiful missions considering that the
timber for these buildings was carried by the Indians on their
shoulders from the mountains to the Missions.
The missions grew rich. The Indians began to work and
in return received all they needed for their living. Any one
being hungry, was allowed to slaughter a head of themission
cattle, but was obliged to bring the hide as a tribute to the
missions. To this day the old Mission Indians in Califor
nia speak of the happy days when they were ruled by the.
There were but few disturbances. One Father was slain
by the hostile Indians at San Diego in the beginning of the
establishment of the Mission. The Mission Fathers were
paternal rulers; they taught Christianity to the Indians;
the best Indians were rewarded; evil-doers were punished by
being tied to a tree and flogged, or for great crimes by being
delivered to the secular arm. The Christians numbered
about 50,000 and, counting all in all, more than 100,000 had
received the grace of baptism.
After the death of Father Junipero, Father Lasuen, after
Father Junipero the most enlightened and prominent Fran
ciscan of his time, was appointed president of the missions.
The government of Mexico interfered more or less with the
management of the Fathers. Fr. Junipero Serra was accused
and misrepresented and he found it necessary to go in person
to Mexico to vindicate himself and his Brothers in religion
from false representations. Father Lasuen and his succes
sors fared rather worse. It is the old story. The Padres
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