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THE INDIAN ADVOCATE 348
Then everyone was happy because everyone was busy, and yet no one was overworked. Labor began usually at 5 a. m., after the morning Angelus and breakfast. Rest, coming at 11 a. m., when the noon meal was served, continued until 2 p. m. Everyone was allowed complete relaxation during this period. From 2 to 5 work was resumed, then supper, often eaten in the open air, and after the evening Angelus there was time for recreation and games until 7:30 p. m., when all retired within the mission to peaceful and well-protected slumbers. The mission-buildings themselves constituted the whole city. They were the fortress, the church, the state, the school, and the seat of all industrial learning and technical training. They were built in a rectangular form enclosing a square, or cuanio, which furnished an impregnable fortress in time of war and gave ample space for community gather ings. Much of the work of the earlier periods was done within the cmwifo, or great square court of the mission, where the workman and his tools could be safe from theft and invasion. Later there were houses built for the trades-people and their work on the outside. The ruins of these arc still remaining in some places rt.ined gristmills and old tanneries, which are picturesque features of these ancient times and furnish additional pages to the history of the pecupations of the age. Each mission was expected to be able not only to carry on all trades but also to manufacture the tools with which that trade was carried on. To a certain extent tools were brought from Spain and from Mexico, yet in the main the missions were self-sustaining and provided, every article for their own consumption and use. They were, moreover, spe cially renowned .for certain trades and manufactured ar ticles. From well-authenticated records' San Fernando Mission comes down to us as being especially skillful in handling iron.