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THE INDIAN ADVOCATE
399 treasured with reverent care. Offerings were made, ritu als sung, and feasts held when the ceremonies took place. Rites were observed when the maize was planted, at cer tain stages of its growth, and when it was harvested. Cere monially associated with maize were other sacred objects, which were kept in a special case or shrine. Among these were the skins of certain birds of cosmic significance, also 7 gourd rattles that marked the movements of the seasons. Elaborate rituals and ceremonies attended the opening of this shrine and the exhibition of its contents, which were symbolic of the forces that make and keep all things alive and fruitful. Aside from these ceremonies there were other quasi-religious gatherings in which feats of jugglery were performed, for the Arikara, like their kindred the Pawnee, were noted for their slfill in legerdemain. The dead were placed in a sitting posture, wrapped in skins, and buried in mound graves. The property, except such personal be longings as were interred with the body, was distributed among the kindred, the family tracing descent through the mother. A collection of Arikara traditions, by G. A. Dor sey, has been published by the Carnegie Institution (1903). The Arikara were a loosely organized confederacy of sub tribes, each of which had its separate village and distinc tive name. Few of these names have been preserved. Le wis and Clark (Exped., 1, 97, 1814) mention Lahoocat, a village occupied in 1797, but abandoned about 1800. How many subtribes were included in the confederacy can not now be determined. Lewis and Clark speak of the Arikara as the remnant of 10 powerful Pawnee tribes, living in 1804 in 3 villages. The inroads of disease and war have so re duced the tribe that little now remains of their former di visions. The following names were noted during the mid dle of the last century: Hachepiriinu ('young dogs') Hia ('band of Cree'), Hosukhaunu (foolish dogs'), Hosukhau nukarerihu ( 'little foolish dogs') Sukhutit( 'black-mouths') , Kaka ('band of Crows'), Okos ('band of bulls'), Paushuk ('band of cut-throats'). Some of these may refer to mili tary and other societies; others seem to be nicknames, as "Cutthroats."