Search America's historic newspaper pages from 1789-1949 or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the
National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress. external link Learn more
Image provided by: Oklahoma Historical Society
Newspaper Page Text
THE INDIAN ADVOCATE
Story of a Famous Indian.
6qpHE Sauganash" was his Indian title. He
I was better known to red and white men
alike as "Captain Billy Caldwell." He was
half Pottawatomie, half white. His immediate
nationality was even more mixed than his an
cestry. On his mother's side he came of the
bluest Pottawatomie Indian stock. His father
was an Irish officer. He was brought up a
Frenchman, received a captaincy from the Bri
tish government, and was a civic official of the
United States. First and last, however, by his own choice
he remained an Indian chief.
Caldwell was born in 1780 in Canada. Asa child he fell
under the wise, kindly influence of the Detroit Jesuits..
From them he received an excellent education and became
master of both the French and English languages in addi
tion to his knowledge of many native Indian dialects.-When
only a lad he met the great Tecumseh and instantly enrol
led himself as that Shawnee spellbinder's admirer and dis
ciple. The two were dear friends'until Tecumseh's death.
But the Shawnees could never imbue Caldwell with his
bitter hatred against the white men. Although Caldwell
with his strong feelings was Indian, he could never wholly
forget that he was half English. He fought for the British
against the United States in the war of 1812. Rising rap
idly in rank he became captain in Great Britain's "Indian
department." Though he lived in the United States after
the war was over, he never renounced his allegiance to the
British crown. He held office under our government, but
was proudest of his rank of captain in England's army.
Apart from 'this captaincy, he was also a chief of the Otta
was and the Pottawatomies.
Caldwell is said by some historians to have been the fier
cest of the Indian assailants at the-" "Chicago Massacre" in
1812. Others say he refused to take part in the conflict.