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I4.UGUST B, MM.
The Commoner. 5 & .. ' JOHN BURROUGHS, writing in Harper's Ma zino, disputes the claim that any of the lower animals is capable of thought. After recounting many interesting tests, Mr. Burroughs said: "Animals have keen perceptionskeener in many respects than our own but they form no concep tions, have no powers of comparing one thing jfcvith another. They live entirely in and through their senses. To all that inner world of reflec tion, imagination, comparison, reason they are strangers. They never return upon themselves in thought. They have sense memory, sense intel ligence, and they profit In many ways by experi ence; but they have not soul memory or rational intelligence. All the fundamental emotions and appetites men and the lower animals share in common, such as fear, anger, love, nunger, jeal ousy, cunning, pride, curiosity, play; but the .world of thought and thought experience, and the emotions that go with it, bolongs to man alone. It is as if the psychic world were divided into two planes, one above the other the plane of sense and the plane of spirit. In the plane of sense live the lower animals, only now and then just break ing for a moment into the higher plane. In the world of sense man is immersed also; this is his start and foundation; but he rises into the plane of spirit, and here lives his proper life. Ho is emancipated from sense in a way that beasts are not." ACCORDING to a statement made by Dr. Thom as Darlington, commissioner of health, the city of New York loses 23,000,000 annually through tuberculosis. Speaking before the sum mer school conducted by the New York charity or ganization society, Dr. Darlington said: ii3stl mating the value of a single life at $1,500 not necessarily a high estimate and taking only those lives betwen 1G and 45 years, the loss of life in this city alone from tuberculosis mounts up to the startling sum of $23,000,000 annually. The general sanitary .conditions are still bad in New York, and the inflow of immigrants, who must be educated in right living, is constantly in creasing." . THE medical officer of the London, Eng., school board has made an Interesting report, in wnich he points out that "word deafness" and "word blindness" are two remarkable defects found among the school children. This officer recommends the creation of special schools for defective children where speech of a normal kind is taught and where clear articulation is insisted on. The London correspondent tot the Chicago Inter Ocean quotes from this officer's report as follows: "To a considerable number of children reading and writing beyond the most rudimentary attempts seem almost impossible of acquirement. Many of these have marked mental feebleness; others seem scarcely amiss in many respects. The want of literary ability is probably more general than is supposed. There are many cases of in ability to recognize words, or to spell anything like the words dictated, while at the same time the child has fair to good faculties in other re spects, such as mental arithmetic." SOME typical cases are given by the London medical officer and there are described by the Inter Ocean correspondent as follows: "The following lines were dictated to a boy who can do any ordinary arithmetic, but is totally word blind: "The drinks were ale and mead, drinks which were made in dark English forests with fermented honey.' The boy wrote as follows i "la base us erans and krsut erans was -loots boath in hast Enitsh louss ins harest lacnt." Three years later, when earning 18 shillings a week, this boy correctly wrote in .arable figures the sum 583,121 2s 11 3-4d from dictation. When asked to write the sum in words, he wrote: 'Soed oein dnuted edhoth snita anerount," signed his name, 'Ted Smith.' Another reads: "It has three birds in if as To see best in td.' He mistakes the letters C and S constantly. Ho quickly and correctly does difficult sums in mental arithmetic, and can describe with great minuteness any scene he has witnessed; his memory is only bad for word symbols. His intellectual processes are carried on entirely in pictures, and the visual word center seems entirely wanting. Another ,5oy, who does his school work well and can draw, . 'letter blind and can not ten a single letter in his name. A fourth has a wonderful faculty of observation and excellent reasoning powers, but can not romember how to make the signs 1, p, 7 and 9. REPRESENTATIVES of the pacmng houso strikers at South Omaha have said that if tne strike continues much longer and tho packers obtain from the federal courts extraordinary writs against the strikers, that tho latter will insist upon an enforcement of the criminal clause of tho anti-trust law. A nowspapor dispalch from South Omaha under date of July 2G, says: "Union men of South Omaha will have their day in court from tho present indications. Boforo bloodshed begins they will use tho law, if possible. There aro strong reasons to believe that tho union mon will endeavor to enforce the criminal clauso of tho anti-trust law and prevent tho packers from further, raising tho price on their products. This movement, if seriously Intended, is bolug made "quietly and with tho utmost precaution. That it is contemplated is a certainty, for within tho last twenty-four hours representatives of the in dependent packing houso movement have been in the city conferring with tho striko leaders aud their friends." GOVERNOR MURPHY of New Jorsey recently complained that other states than New Jer sey were making bids for tho organization of trusts. As is well known, Now Jersey is tho homo of the great trusts, the laws of that state being framed so as to make a trust organization decided ly easy, and comfortable for the organizers. A writer in the Boston Globe says trial even Massa chusetts is showing a disposition tp rival New Jersey. The Globe writer adds: "Tlje amount of stocks and bonds Incorporated in Now Jersey con solidations . seem almost incrediuio. J'At least 25 consolidations could bo mentioned, involving an avowed capital of nearly $2,500,000,000, which havo been formed since Jan. 1, 1899, and only those aro included that have $10,000,000 or over of capitali zation. No reference has been made to such con cerns as the Amalgamated copper company, with a capital of $75,000,000; tho American woolen com pany, with a capital of $05,000,000, or tho Ameri can cycle company, with a capital of $80,000,000. In fact the total capitalization which has been consummated in that state would be almost past finding out." THE organization of a trust In New Jersey Is a very simple affair. Tho New Jersey meth ous are described by a Boston Globe writer in this way: "Five wealthy men from Wall street can go to New Jersey and announce that they have a patent worth untold milirons. They then can issue, after incorporation, stocks and bonds upon their own rating of their own property. The real value of their patent may bo but $40, but as long as they say it is worth $40,000,000, it has to go for that. They havo an arrangement in that1 state known as tho 'annual franchise tax.' Stripped of all subterfuge this device means that if a trust is once organized and wishes to continue business, it can do so by paying a beggarly few thousand dollars yearly Into the Now Jersey state coffers, through the franchise ax clause In tho state's Incorporation laws." IT IS pointed out by this same authority that the policy of dealing gently with tho corpora tions is nothing new in New Jersey Tor men as far back as 1791 went to that state lor Incorpora tion. No less a personage than Alexander Hamil ton is said to have organized in 1791 a corpora tion called "the contributors to the society for the establishment of useful manufacures," with the modest capital of $1,000,000. The ball thus started has been rolling ever since. It is further shown that the trusts pay nearly all the expenses of tho commonwealth and that even the courts appear to aid legislation favoring the trusts. Pointing out that other states have gone into tho trust business, the Globe writer asks: "When will an aroused national intelligence make all states ashamed to loose these bogus and preda tory corporations upon their helpless neighbors?" IN THE federal court at Omana, the attorneys for the packing house strikers applied to Judge Munger for a modification of tho restrain ing order. Judge Munger declined to make tho modification, but explained: "Orders aro often construed to different purposes, xsut In law they must bo construed as applying lo the languugo of tho bill of complaint. This order Is not to pro vent auyono from doing nnything ho has a legal right to do. I do not think thdro is anything in tho order, which if properly construed contains anything objectionable. There Is nothing In It which prohibits a lawful gathering or meeting ordered for tho legitimate duties of pcaco. Tho court docs not think picketing tor observation is unlawful, unless for purposes or violence aftor ward. Tho court does not think tho law is any different today than It was at tho time of tho Union Pacific doclslon. Thcro is nothing In tho order that will provont tho strikers from doing legal acts. Nor can it bo construed as to pro hibiting different unions from acting within thoir legal rights." C. J. Smyth, attorney for tho strikers, says that ho regards tho order on its faco as one of tho most swooping evor issued in the United States. Ho adds, however, that Judge Munger's explanation has tho effect to modify tho order so far as concerns its original interpreta tion. It was annouced July 27 that Judge Munger had gone on a fishing trip and attorneys for tho packers stated that they had asked that another judgo bo asked to enforce Judge Munger's ordor. Of course, It was admitted that tho "othor Judgo" would interpret Judge Mungor's order ana tho interpretation might differ considerably from that placed upon it by Mr. Munger himself. The packers claim that tho ordor has neon violated by the strikers and that they will probably ask that citations for contempt be issued against a larga number of working mon at South Omaha. REFERRING to the claim made by tho re publican national platform that ,"a demo cratic tariff has always been followed by business adversity; a" republican tariff by business pros perity," the New York Times presents some inter esting reminders. The Times ssys: "Tho repub lican party came into power in 1801; this clearly fixes tho period In which tho comparison between the republican and democratic tariffs and their consequences must bo made. Since that dato there have been a half dozen times of great de pression In business which were accompanied by enough excitement of tho public mind to bo called panics. The first occurred In tho spring of 18G1, and was duo wholly to tho impending contest with secession. The second occurred In 18GG-18G7, when the number of failures ran up to 2,780, and tlio liabilities of failed concerns to $9G,U6G,000. In 1873 there was a third depression, which has become memorable in our history, when tho failures reached 5,183 and the liabilities the then unprecedented amount of $220,499,900. Five ycara later thero was a fourth Interval of stagnation and disturbance, when the number of failures nearly doubled and the liabilities again Increased, this time to $234,383,182. In 1884 tho fifth de pression caused the record of failures to reach almost tho same figures. Finally In 1893 wo had tho appalling total of failures at 15,542 and tho total liabilities at $34G,779,889." COMMENTING upon tho above snowing, the Pittsburg Postsays: "Yq are glad to see special attention called to the situation In 1877, tho most disastrous of all, for It Is well remem bered in Pittsburg. It was the year of the rail road riots and general strikes. It was tho year tho state was covered by a standing army and citlzons were shot down in tho streets by scores. It was tho year of a republican tariff, a republican presi dent, a republican congress and a republican gov ernor and state legislature, as well as a republican panic is business and industrial circles." TH E census bureau of the department of com merce and labor has issued a bulletin relat ing to the negro population of the United States. From this bulletin facts are compiled by a writer in the Atlanta Constitution as follows: "In tho south negroes aro about one-third of the popu latlon, both in tho cities (30.9 per cent) and in country districts (32.G per cent). Since 1840 tho increase in the negro population of the south has been less rapid than that of the white popu lation. During tho past decade the negro Increase in tho country districts was only about two-thirds that of the whites, and five-sixths in the towns. Tho center of the negro population Is in DeKalb lLviS