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WILLIAM J. BRYAN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR VOL. 13, NO. 29 Lincoln, Nebraska, September, 1913 Whole Number 653 x THEY LISTENED TO THE PEOPLE When the history of tho present tariff struggle Is written, credit will have to bo conceded to nearly all the democratic senators and members for resisting tho temptation to put local in terests above tho general welfare. In the dis cussions of the tariff question herotofore, al lowances had to bo made for the pressure of local beneficiaries upon democrats who, In prin ciple, repudiated tho doctrine of protection but, in practice, found it difficult to make their votes harmonize with, their speeches. This was especially true in the discussion of the Payne Aldrich bill, when a number of democrats so far forgot themselves as to declare that, while they opposed protection as a matter of principle they wanted their constituents to have their share of it so long as its benefits were being passed around. When congress met in special session, at tho call- of-I resident Wilson, to reduce the tariff in the interests of tho people, the democratic party realized that it" was time to got together and that success was possible only by tho recog nition of the right of the consumers to recogni tion. There has been, therefore, an astonish ingly small amount of talk about tho claims of particular industries. Only in the case of two articles has there been any considerable effort tp retain for an important product the benefits of a protective tariff, namely, wool and sugar. Some of the representatives from the states whore wool is largely produced felt that the transfer of this commodity to the free list might work a hardship upon a portion of their con stituents. Discussion, however, disclosed, first, that even in the states where wool is most President on Mexico On another page will be found the president's message on the Mexican situation, together with the documents which accompanied the message. Tho readers of The Commoner are invited to examine carefully the president's utterances on this subject, for this message will stand out in history as the beginning of an epoch. The tono of the message is superb, and tho literary style measures up to tho high standard of excellence which tho president has set in his state papers. The delivery was impressive, and the applause which greeted the message was so universal and so hearty as to leave no doubt that he spoke the sentiments of tho American people. The press comments, without regard to party, have been most favorable and emphatic. The president has been patient in dealing with the Mexican situation, and the language in which his proposals were expressed was care fully selected, with, a view to avoiding anything which could wound the pride of our southern neighbors or give just cause for criticism. The president tendered the good offices of the United largely grown the number of thoso specially benefited is few compared with tho number of thoso who would bo burdened by tho tax, and, second, that the compensatory duty which al ways accompanies a tax upon raw material would enable the manufacturers to take from tho consumers of woolen goods vastly moro than the producers of wool could possibly re ceive. As a result of investigation, tho opposi tion to free wool gradually diminished until the democratic party was practically a unit against tho tax upon wool. With free wool has come a greater reduction in woolen goods than would have been possible had tho tax on wool been retained and tho whole country will be benefited. It is not cer tain that free wool will work a real hardship, even to the large sheep owners, since the in creased production of woolen goods In this country will stimulate a domand for the local product to mix with tho larger quantity of tho wool imported. And then, too, tho steadily In creasing monopoly among tho manufacturers of woolens has loft tho wool growers at the mercy of a few buyers so that it is questionable whether he was in a position to collect tho benefits which had been voted to him by thoso who gave him a tax on wool. But whether or not there is actual pecuniary loss to the large flock-masters, there la no doubt that free wool will bring enormous advantage to tho mass of the people and it will, in addition to that, re move the keystone from the protective arch and make it impossible for the beneficiaries of pro tection to justify their system on the ground that it Includes the farmer In its benefits a plea that has been used with groat effect for many years, In spite of Ito absurdity. Tho democratic representatives from tho wool growing states should bo applauded for tho courage which they havo manifested In defying tho clamor of special prlvllego and casting in their lot with tho over-burdened masses. The sugar interests havo mado an even moro stubborn resistance to tho demands of tho tariff roformors, due largely to tho fact that this In dustry Is distributed over a larger number of states and is concoutratod in Its boneflts. And horo, too, tho president won because of the overwhelming demand of thoso who have borno a heavy burden for tho benefit of tho relatively limited number who havo profited by tho tax. These senators from tho sugar states who havo stood for free sugar should receive tho plaudits of tho tax payers; they have Loea faithful to tho many rather than subservient it the few. It is fortunate that we now havo the election of senators by direct vote of tho people, glnco tho special Interests can no longer punish patriotic senators through tho successful manip ulation of legislatures. The Commoner will not risk offending by apportioning credit among those who havo stood up valiantly for a real tariff reduction, but it appeals to tho constit uents of these men to express appreciation. It Is cheering to the legislator to receive commen dation from tho rank and file of his constituents and he Is entitled to it when ho vote3 right to offset the abuse which is sure to come from those who recognize that they can no longer convert tho government into a private asset In business. w. J. BRYAN'. States as a friend and neighbor, and tendered them In the spirit of friendship and neighborli ness the offer resting upon the most substan tial grounds, grounds that are recognized by all civilized nations. The terms which he proposed were the simplest and most obvious that could CONTENTS THEY LISTENED TO THE PEOPLE THE PRESIDENT ON MEXICO THE INCOME TAX A GREAT VICTORY PRESIDENT WILSON'S MESSAGE ON MEXICAN SITUATION AN ECONOMIC FALLACY EXPLODED MR. BRYAN'S CURRENCY LETTER THE WORK OF THE PRESIDENT'S CABINET TARIFF BILL PASSES THE SENATE HOME DEPARTMENT WASHINGTON NEWS GLEANED FROM THE MONTH'S NEWS IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURE WHETHER COMMON OR NOT have been suggested, and it is not his fault that his offer was rejected. Ho awaits tho sober second thought of those who form the public opinion of Mexico. He has confidence In the triumph of moral forces; "he has faith in tho wisdom of doing right" He Is testing tho truth of the words of Carlylo who, in tho closing chap tors of his French Revolution, said that "thought Is stronger than artillery parks," and that back of avary great thought Is love. Some of tho European editors thoso who havo not yet learned how temporary are tho victories that violence can win, and who still wage their battles on tho level of physical force these, few in number, speak disparagingly of tho outlook. But they will not bo able to find among the boasts of thoso of their class any thing that will approach In length of life or in its power to command increasing approbation a sentence like that with which the president con cluded his message: "The steady pressure of moral force will be fore many days break tho barriers of pride and prejudice down, and wo shall triumph as Mexico's friends sooner than we could triumph as her enemies and how much more hand somely, with how much higher and finer satis factions of conscience and of honor!" W. J. BRYAN. h l M &3iAn Ctltitiiiillttfiiiilf i i 1 1 'iBB'iii.fea,-., "W ,&..