Newspaper Page Text
VOL. I. NUMBER 13.
38% r£ .T," It*" CREAM OF THE COUNTY MEWS,- V' if Through Various Sources. From •ent Parts of the Surrounding Country. 'Talks Free Trade to the Farmers at Worthing—Benjamin's System of Farmiug. HAKMDON'S HABAHGTJE. |i^ WOUTHINO, Sept. 15.—Special Corre P^': tpondenee: The democrats of this locality ssE'• joined in a grand blpw out here last Tuesday evening with the Lennox band and W. P. Harndon, of Beadle county, t$~ as the chief blow. As is customary at |gji* all demociatic gatherings in this county, ,l the attendence excepting republicans and ML independents, ,was exceedingly meager •M'' and tj&blow was the. biggest part in the §f tleaJHP^ if. MT^arndon's speech was. chiefly de voted "to the tariff, the liquor and woman's suffrage questions. $1&< The speaker said he was a democrat from the ground up, which was not say ing very much as he was not high up. Free trade was his great hobby. He •"'wanted the tax taken off of clothing, it seemed, so he could buy a pair of trousers lor 9 cents, coat for three cents, vest, 3 '4^cents, cost of whole suit, 14 cents. This V' is about what it would cost after deduct ing the amount of duty he proposed to deduct in his figures on the black board. If all this could be made to operate as nicely as the theoratic tongue of Mr. Harndon spun out the philosophy pre pared for the occasion, but in the dim background of the speaker's figures tha truth was plainly visible and every think ing man could read the fact that to carry propositions and make the sweep luctionsheproposed, would land our within the deadly fold of it Mr. Harndon evidently did the laboring men when he complied his cunningly contrived mass 0f i'l"- figures for he said nothing of the I laborer, neither did he stop to tell our 1 S people that twenty years ago we paid •23 for a suit of clothes no better than one we can now buy for $10 that was evident ly not his side of the question. On the prohibition question Mr. Harn S&t^don aired himself freely and made about litthe same kind of unsatisfactory state foments that he made on the tariff question. & He drew his conclusions from a young democrat who became a drunkard from the use of liquor he shipped in because he could not buy it in an open saloon. This single example was his authority for the statement that prohibition was making drunkards in South Dakota. The woman's suffrage question was more than slaughtered by our free-trade, free whisky friend who made a rank attack upon the independent party for toleratijs a prohibition and equal suffrage PWM^latform- In tllis statement hi ^^•'wever, suddenly choked off by Prank^Kvitt, who called his attention to the fi^C that he was uttering an abso lute falsehood. According to his ideas, the present standard of morality in this country is too low :ancl degrading to per mit of a-decent woman going to the polls to vote. He used language unbecoming a gentleman and had any ladies been present, they would have been compelled to leave the audiance or be openly insult ed by the speaker. A VOICE FEOM DELAWARE. It Asks! Some Haughty Questions Concerning the Benjamin System of Farming. EDITOR OF FARMERS' LEADER: Seeing an article in the News of Au gust 29 froiti D. F. Benjamin, the pro fessional snapper, wherein he picks the bones of Emma in away that is conclu sive in his mind no doubt but to my mind there is yet room for a doubt as to he gentleman's utterly crushing argu ment being able to crash us all. In the first place he makes a fine show ing on his paper farm, it reminds me of the kind of farming that wq hear so much abotffcthat is done by that class of farm ers as street corner farmers, that do 'that is done for the old ring papeJ^aMfeG present time and furnish nearly all the crop reports which every one knows is as far from the truth as the wonderful stories about the properity of cfertain individual farmers, who are bv the way, very thinly scattered over this county. Judging from Mr.'B's. own farm we are obliged to conclude that if he would do less of this kind of farming and more of the kind that the average farmer does, his farm would lootf much better. If Mr. B. sold all his produce and would nei llier eat nor drink anything, nor paid any taxes, nor bought any machinery nor hired any help nor kept up actual ex penses, he might possibly be able to pay 3ns debts. Now Bennie, I for one am glad you have told us what wonderful things can be done on a quarter section of land here in Dakota. Hi* ik't. I have been here nearly eighteen years and never dreamed that I could roll up a clean $1,080, in a single year and a dry year at that and I have put in my best licks, too. Just imagine, Mr. Editor what this story would have been if it had been told in a wet season. If Mr. Benjamin really has the secret and will part with it, let him state his price and I havfc no doubt he will be able to get money enough ahead so he will not be obliged to buy goods at a sale on time, but instead he could pay the cash and get the benefit of the 5 per cent discount and save the interest and have a little left to speculate with and not be obliged to draw on his wonderful paper crop. Now Friend B. you on your paper farm, you state tha,t you can or have pro duced this year 40 bushels per acre, on fifty acres of corn, and 50 bushels- per acre, of oats, on fifty acres, 15 bushels per acre, of wheat on 40 acres. Now give us a sworn statement of what you have actually raised on your farm this year so we can really be convinced that you have the true, secret for I tell you, Ben, there is money in it. I have not1'been over this county as you claim to have been but I see a man occas sionally, from different parts of the coun ty and I am not able to find any farmer who says his corn will yield more than 30 bushels and oats judging from what has been threshed from 35 to 30 bushels and wheat ten bushels per acre at the best, so you see your secret is a good one, if it works. But allow me to ask a question, and will with all due respect consider your reply. Corn in Nebraska and Kansas last win ter was worth $3.40 per ton on board cars and three days from that time that same corn was worth $16 per ton in Pennsyl vania also hard coal was worth at the mines in Pennsylvania on board cars $1.25 per ton, and in Nebraska it sold for $10 per ton. Now, I ask has the farmer, who put in nearly a years time getting that corn in to market, made as much on his invest ment and time as the railroad company has? Respectfully yours, I. G. NOKAMOUS. DEPENDENTS 0B DJDEPEHDEHTS. Farmers and Laborer* Are Left to Ohoose Between These for Future Consolation. HIGHLANDTWP., Sept. 16,—To THE FARMERS' LEADER: In the Canton Ad vocate of Aug 7 I see an article trying to cover our worthy editor with slang and dirt, of which the editor of that paper possesses an abundance. Why don't he change off and fling some at us? I can assure him that we can find plenty of men down here who can fill any man's pants and they don't need to depend on original packages to do so either. Do you know, Mr. Editor, what it re minds me of when I read their slang and falsehoods? A little boy holding to his fathers coat-tail after coming home from town, and crying "Dad, give me some thing give me something, dad." While they are eternally throwing the cry of "office seekers" into our teeth, they are themselves throwing slang, dirt and every contemptible sort of stuff at their neigh bors for no other purpose than to retain the good will of their party leaders, in the hope of getting into office themselves—in deed they are the worse kinds of office seekers. But while their teaching is cunning and lavishly distributed, it resembels somewhat the scriptural quotation the devil presented to Eve in the Garden of Eden. But truth crushed to earth, will rise one day, and we shall ultimately know these slander venders by their deeds as ye shall know the tree by the fruit it bears. The independent party is strong down here and is gaining new recruits every day. The people have been hoodwinked by these mealy-mouthed hypocrits so long that they are beginning to have their eyes opened and henceforth they will look to the issues before them instead of permitting their attention to be drawn estray. We see clearly that both the old parties are controled by the money power of this country, through its paid hirelings who have managed, by corporation money, to get into the public offices. We see no other way out of our oppressive condition than to unite our efforts in the fold of the independent party. The day has come when we must be either inde pendents or dependents, and our natural love for our freedom creating an abhor ance for the latter, we have no other re sort than to be INDEPENDENTS. OLE. N0BWAY HEARD FB0M. A Farmer's Leader Correspondent Sends A Budget of Notes. Norway Sept. 16.^— Special Corre spondence-. Norway township is well dis posed toward the independent county as well as the state ticket and our township will give a heavy majority for the inde pendents—A. L. Rommereimis improving his premises by putting a new roof on his barn—K. M. Nupen is feeding a fine. lot of cattle and hogs for market—Nels sriiiiuimsViif in in,i A Faithful LEADER in the Cause of Economy and Reform, the Defender of Truth and Justice, the Foe of Ftaud and Corruption, CANTON, SOUTH DAKOTA, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, 1890. Eckly and Austin Odegard have each built large additions to their residences this fall—Nels Larson says he has as much office at home as he wants to attend to, consequently he does not want any office. Nels would make a solid man in the legislature, though, and our peo ple will some day make an effort to send him there—How about the county seat war, have the Cantonites succeeded in breaking it up? Your correspondent was visited by a party ,of original pack age republican democrats some time ago, who were out on a fishing expedition. They had poor success catching fish, and taking me for a sucker, they began to bluff me on the independent party issue. I was surprised at the weakness of their arguments and the ignorance of the men yet they are fellows who are con siderably looked to in their respective parties. I expect these same fellows put in a good deal of their time trying to con vince their neighbors that the Nor wegians and other foreigners don't know enough about American institutions to vote intelligently—What is the matter with the old party papers at Canton, the Nuisance and Advocate? According to their screams and cries they must feel terribly hurt at the independents. I was in hope when one of them took a trip over the Indain reservation, he would come home feeling better, but instead of that he is worse. The indications are that the independents have the drop on these fellows and their party and they will scream worse than they do now tge fore 1890 is over—How do Canton folks feel over the defeat of their ruin Friday at the Mitchell convention? The people down here don't feel sorry, for they never thought much of Gifford since they have seen what a poor excuse he has been for their interests in congress. They look upon him as a total failure for he has failed to say a word in favor of the farmers in terests. Yet the Nuisance and Advocate, papers who both pretend to favor the in terests of the' farmer, have always fought for this typical nonentity. Say how did he vote on the bill allowing Geo. A. Mathews $7,000 pay for doing nothing? Will the Nuisance and Advocate answer this? ONE OF THE CRANKS. POLITICAL KEBTlHdB. Appointments of Independent Speakers in Linoola County. Springdale township, Friday evening, Sept. 19—at Hogaboom school house— Bradshaw, Owens and Gehon. Dayton township, Saturday, Sept, 20— at Brown's school house—Bradshaw, Owens and Gehon. Brooklyn township, Thursday, Sept. 35—at Brooklyn school house—Holter, Wahl and Wardwell. Pleasant township, Friday, Sept. 36— at Savey school house—Gehon, Holter and Wahl. Norway township, Saturday, Sept. 37 —at Kices school house—Wardwell, Bradshaw and. amieson. Eden township, Monday, Sept. 29—at Hilletls school house—Bradshaw, Owens and Gehon. Fail-view township, Wednesday, Oct. 1, —at Falde school house—Owens, Goltry and Forrest. Highland township, Thursday, Oct. 2 —at Austin Olson school house—Wimple, Owens and Barnum. Lincoln township, Friday, October 3— at R. R. May school house—Wall, Jamie son and Wardwell. Delaware township, Saturday, Oct 4— at Pleasant View school house—Brad' shaw, Westbury and Holter. Lynn township, Monday, Oct. 6—at Wiggins school house—Bradshaw, West bury and Wahl. Grant township, Tuesday, Oct. 7— at the Brandhagen school house— Gehon, Holter and Barnum. Delapre township, Wednesday, Oct. 8 —at school district No. 60—Bradshaw, Gehon and Sweeden. Perry township, Thursday, Oct. 9—at Lennox—Bradshaw, Gehon and Sweeden. At any and all of these meetings an invitation is extended to members of other political parties to meet our speakers and discuss the merits of the in dependent platform. By the County Committee, MARRTET), In Highland township, on Sept. 14, at the residence of pride's father, Archie H. Clark and Miss Inoa V. Pelton Rev. V. B. Conklin, officiating. Quite a large company of friends were present to share in the congratulation extended to the hap py pair, and in the luxurious festivities of the occasion. The bride and groom are well and favorably know, and con gratulations will be general and hearty. It was a joyous occasion and so may joy, peace and prosperity over be with these on lifes surging sea. •'IN S mk T?^!^^^jWttggMBBS|p|^afef^ja'riM5*WMrMSBTOh»ftii»i«lnil llaMlnrtl f»^^B*jl.»iaifc^iMMlWlilW»iil«M^^tiiliiMWilaa»ijfc^jiirMi»fiiiirifMMi»jl »iiiiiirMiiiw)»»« iilwi nrriiMnlirfti^iM ig'T'liM"'' ft»iiiii«i'ilifiiiiiii«i^w»«*«' ri~f^-^^^fK»q=^i.v-gripgag!Bgaa^.iss^-s =-. PUBLIC LAND ROBBERY, A Pointed Article on the Subject From the Able Pen of Walter Price, of Letcher, 8. D. Hou/ the United States Government Has Nursed the Railroads From the Pub-. I lie Crib. "r LAND GRANTS AND SUBSIDIES Yery few people among the farmers and[ other laboring classes are aware of the Immense amount of land given and the financial aid rendered to the railroads of this country to aid their construction. I wis astonished when I got to reading the report of the secretary of the interior as published in the bound volume of "Message and Documents for 1888-'89 and kindly furnished me by the courtesy of Hon. J. A. Pickler. It' seems impossi ble to believe that our government has been so corrupt, or if not inspired by cor ruption in many of the cases, so reckless ly profligate and lavish in its gifts. The whole matter looks at this day as unwise arid o? a penny wise and pound foolish nature, as if inspired by only good na ture. •. There is such an immense amount of such transactions that I can mention but a few of them. I will not even have time to add up the items and give up the sum total of all this nation's wealth—the peo ple's inheritance—so recklessly squan dered. I open on page 801 and flndv the statement that the Union Pacific has re ceived the greatest subsidy of any rail road from the United States. On page 8921 find the statement that it had dis posed of $12,944,789.12 cash, and stand ing out on time sales, $13,538,861.24. This .reports up to Dec.. 31, 1887. On page 910 I find that the principal of bonds issued by the United States to the Union Pacific railroad, including the Kansas Pacific branch, to be $33,530,512, and the interest paid thereon by the Uniten States, $40,142,851.74 total, $83, 682,363.74. That is, the government is sued its bonds to the Union Pacific rail way, which they sold for cash, and now the United States has been paying the delinquent interest on them to the amount of $40,141 851.74. The United StSfffiis^tecured• by a second mortgage on the road-bed. In the meantime the Union Pacific railroad has credits to the amount of $23,410,532.33 for transporta tion, etc. Well, all this staggers me but I go on to the next, the Central Pacific. On page 891 I find that up to Dec. 31, 1877, that 3.402,384.34 acres of land had been pat ented, and total receipts from all sales amounted to $7,814,434.55. Over to page 910 again I see that the amount of subsi dy and interest amounts to $60,497,517. 81, with $50,613,180.58 yet unpaid. I now skip over a few pages and come to the Northern Pacific railroad. On page 911 I find that the total number of acres re ceived is 18,383,959,-80, of which 6,339, 140,-01, acres have been sold up to Dec. 31, 1887 for $32,014,405.51 cash, and $4, 084,003.33 on time. I do not notice any cash subsidy given this railroad, but no tice that the United States government is a liberal patron of the company. And so it goes all the weary way through. To continue making a con densed statement, as I have been doin would fill a page of the Ruralist and weary the reader beyond endurance. The average voter knows nothing about these things. For many years he has been blindly gulping down everything the g. o. p.'s have set before him, while the na tion was being robbed. Without making any calculation whatever, I will estimate that enough has been squandered in land grants and subsidies, if properly used, to construct three trans-continental rail roads. Just think, brother farmer, what a competition three great railroads stretching from the Atlantic to the Paci fic and running through our most fertile country would be! But 'tis done, and the railroad magnate sitting in power with his millions of ill gotten gains, with the banker loaded with usury on one hftnd, and the distiller on the other hand with his blood money wrung from the hearts and souls of the people, asks in autocratic insolence: '•What are you going to do about it?" And the party slave cringes and bows to his g. o. p. that aided and abetted these steals and cries aloufcKthat he perfers his slavery to his liberty, his drunkenness to sobriety, and that those who are protest ing against their condition are cranks and deserve the lash! O, yes, it makes bie lieart-sicli and re bellious, too, when I think I m!Vy be re quired by my governmen% at any time to leave my family and hijnible home, and serve my country frJt years at $15 month and forage, ^nd that in event of disease or wounds incurred thereby can drag out twenty^.j}ve more the country fOUght t,Q .v years of suf fering with a pittance of a pension, and then be expi jCte(j to bow my head while saVe is being rob bed, and to cry out: "Great is Diana of the Ephesians!" Let us have govern ment ownership of the railroads.—Walter Price in Dakota Ruralist. FROM ABANDONED FARMS. Some of tbe Thoughts That Came to Man Who Occupies Two of Them. I have lived on a farm all my life, and now occupy two abandoned farms which adjoin my own. Their former owners got into debt and the farms were sold at sheriff's sale, and are now owned by men who are able to live without working a farm. I remember the hard times of the "fifties" before the war, and also the good times just after that "unpleasant ness," when money was abundant and all the products of labor brought good prices. All kinds of business were brisk and all classes seemed to be prospering, in spite of the fact that we were then paying a large war debt. [Oh, we are paying it still, and our taxes are just as heavy now as they were when the debt was more than twice as large.—Ed] The public officers, apparently jealous of the prosperity of the people, had their own salaries doubled, and these have generally remained unchanged to the present day, while the prices of the products of labor have been reduced one half, and in many cases more than that. We were told that the prices of those days were "fictitious" on account of the prevalent "inflation," and that we must come down to a "gold basis," and of course the way to "come down" was by contraction, and the way we have come down has been fun for the bondholder, but death to the farmer. Although in figures we have already paid more than one-half of the national debt, it will take more of the products of labor te paj the remainder than it would have (tone be fore a cent had been paid. This is not an accidental condition it is a premed itated scheme to rob laborof its jtast dues. We all ought to know that scarc ity of any necessary or desirable thing makes it high in price, and money is no exception to the rule but money being the measure of value, the ordinary mind fails to grasp the idea that money can be high in price. But many & tenner knows to his sor row that it takes double the amount of produce to get a dollar that it did twen ty-five years ago, and hence they have tried every means to increase their crops only to make the matter worse by helping to bring down prices. One correspond ent of The Rural mentioned laziness as one of the causes of the existence of so many abandoned farms, but human nat jyjS 'j" j™*- today asit-was. twenty-five years ago, and young men are just as eager to own a farm and home of their own as ever but they have seen too many caught in the agricultural trap to feel like trying it themselves. They have seen men grow old and gray in nseless toil trying to pay for a home, and after they have made improvements, and in part paid for it, it has perforce of hard times been sold out, only to help enrich the money shark and to add one more to the list of abandoned farms. The farmer labors under too many dis advantages. Let me mention a few. If he waters his milk he is a fit candi date for the state prison, and a sojourn there would serve him right but th" railroad man waters his stock for tlie same purpose (to get something for noth ing), and he is a fit candidate for the United States senate. The farmer issues his promise to pay, and pays the interest on it. The banks issue their promises to pay and get interest on them. Real es tate pays an outrageously large dispro portion of all state taxation. If the farmer is in debt on his farm he is taxed for the full amount, while the man who holds the mortgage often gets off scot free. Again, our tariff system on the neces saries of life causes the poor man to pay as much of the tax as the rich man, and causes millions to accumulate in the United States treasury, and these are lent to the banks free of interest. Farms that were bought twenty-five years ago at $40 per acre will not sell at the pres ent time for $30. But United States bonds were bought at forty cents on the dollar, and were then refunded in such a way that they are now worth $1.28. The cause of all this is that we have voted for money sharks and corporation law yers to make our laws, and they have made them in their own interests and those of their clients. Now, if these conditions continue to exist it is only a question of time when the farmer who Owns the land he tills will be a person of the past, and his place will be filled by the miserable tenant farmers so com mon in the Old World.—W. W. Coats, Alleghany county, New York, in Sural New Yorker. The English Class of Fowls. For the Dorking fowls great antiquity is claimed. These fowls have been so long known in England that they are called an English breed, and in the American standard of perfection, as adopted by the American Poultry asso ciation, the varieties, white, silver gray and colored Dorkings, constitute the En glish class. The general predilection of the fair sex for Dorkings is accounted for not only by the beauty of all the varie ties, but even more by their unrivaled qualities as table birds. The meat is not only abundant, producing in large quan tities in the choicest parts, but its quality is not surpassed by any other English breed, game excepted. In no breeds are size, form ard weight so much regarded in judging the merits of a pen. :-1 •:•. ^Y| $1.00 PER ANNUM. unrivaled excellence as table birds, the ease with which they can be prepared! for market, their docility, the suitabil ity of the hens for hatching early broods, being exemplary sitters and mothers, and last, but by no means least, the fact that they are in their prime when most fowls are too old for use. But no breed is perfect, and the Dork ings have their failings. They degen erate more than other breeds from inter breeding, and soon decrease in size^un less fresh blood is introduced. They do not bear confinement well, hence are net profitable in restricted quarters neither are they good layers. They are liable to suffer on wet soils, but, as has been told, are a most valuable table fowl, and therefore a profitable breed to rear in wide, well drained or graveled yai^s. Seven Tears' Experience with Siids. Seven years' experience with silos at the Michigan Agricultural station leads to the following conclusions: ,The silo should be built of lumber, an^l located as near the feeding place as possible, and on the same level. A silo 33 feet deep, 10 feet wide, and 14 feet long, will be sufficient for six months' feeding of ten cows weighing 1.000 pounds each, which will consume 600 pounds of ensilage daily. For the silo the corn should not be harvested until well matured. A great deal of the feeding value has been lost in the past by cutting while too green and succulent. Silage corn should never be fed alone to obtain the best re sults, nor in too large proportion when combined with other fodder. Silage and clover hay combined make a most excellent mixture for coarse fodder. These, with bran, shorts, corn meal, etc., in proper proportions, make the most economical food for young cattle and for making milk and beef. Horsea. Raising fast horses is monopolizing large capital with skill and experienced professional breeders, who secure the best bred mares and stallions and maintain a track and trainers. Farmers who have not all these facilities cannot compete with professional breeders besides, if everybody raises fast horses there would be a greater surplus than now.—Western Agriculturist Poultry Picking*. Eggs should be gathered daily and stored in a dry place, not a cellar. Fifty degrees is a safe temperature. Eggs la tended for hatching should be gently turned once a day. Egg cases holding: two or more dozen are convenient for this purpose. It repays tbe fanner to properly care for the eggs and not per mit them to remain longer than a day in the nest Never use ashes or lime to mix with hen manure. If either is used, away goes the ammonia, which is the most valuable part of the manure Every morning with a shovel and scraper th© floor of the hen house should be thor oughly scraped and the accumulation placed in barrels in a dry shed close at hand. When enough has been stored it may be used in a semi-liquid form In warm weather whitewash and car bolic acid should be applied freely to lie interior of all henhouses as well as nests and roosts. We usually whiten up every thing about the poultry quarters every three weeks the year around A whiter building is more attractive than Ainev one. The fowls like it-. aiiu this alone is a good reason lot beeping it so xuoy iikave a Kiarnc to a rarty. The monopoly press is sick because the farmers and wage vforkers are taking a hand in politics. The men who have been running the political parties seem to think that the proper place for those who create the wealth and pay the taxes is in the fields and' workshops, except on the day of election, when they should sally forth and vote for the men who are nominated by the bosses and rings. When the people adopt the methods of the bosses of the two old party lead ers, and have their candidates nominat ed for office, they at once become politi cal criminals, and the bosses talk of driv ing them out of the party. If the people see proper to organise for political purposes, whose business is it? They have as much right to have a party as the corporations. The trouble is with those who have been running the politics for several years. They don't want to give the old parties over to the control of the people, as they know that when the people take hold of poli tics those who have been running tha country politics will be compelled tp give way for better and more patriotic men.—San Antonio Labor Journal. Seeding with Grass. You may sow grass seed al^ne if the ground is clear from weeds r^nd the sur face is fine, rich and me^jjgrw, covering the seed with a brush 'harrow, smooth-1 ing harrow, plank dra^ MA/Y Briefly summarized, then, the merits buried at a more uniform depth with a of the Dorkings are their beauty, their drill—Country Gentleman. :||f|j|' ',""" 0' Mm r. \,A ty.'v •, y-S-M I.: ,..i' .. •w: .'•ft"! -i&x J. i-. ''U -.v- •f'! 4 or rou0r. If the soil should be too it will be neces sary to wait till^ j.^ jjgg moistened it. If rather dr^/^,an otherwise it may bej best to use/ 'jJjq roller to firm the soil' around the grass seed. The plank drag OSCC'G the same end if the conditions. rrc EaVorahle or you may seed with win-, tet wheat, or, still better, with winter srye. Successful seedi with grass alone will give you a crop s, months sooner? than if it is shaded by a grain crop. The' treatment will vary with circumstances —soil, weather, amount of rain, etc.— and judgment must be used. Wheat' a rid grass seed require unlike treatment,: Uie grain being buried two or tlirea inches deep, and the gras3 seed less than inch. The former will probably bei 41 ills -jAji 'i-M- "i I 'M, V$ if-,