VOL.1. NUMBER 23.
ANOTHER INDEPENDENT VICTORY.
The Third Party Successful in the Election
of a Representative in Lahe Countu i—r
•I Last Tuesday.
Senatop^jf^rilkof Union County Dies
of Apople'.yy-bther News of Gen
MADISON, NOV. 20.—Special Correspond
ence: At the special election held here yes
terday to determine the tie between Frank
Knight, rep. and B. B. Bowell, ind. for
the lgislature, Bowell was triumphantly
elected. As the republicans had counted
on tnis seat for the majority in the legisla
ture, this is a great independent victory.
The republicans now can not elect their
United Stains senator,
SENAI$R-ELECT CIULL DEAD.
1ST, Nov. 25.—Special: L. M.
Velected to the state senate on
the indepV«e&nt ticket, died at his home at
Richland l^is morning of apoplexy. A
new election will be held to fill his place.
TheyBing In Norway Township
NUREY, NOV. 24.—Special Correspond
ence: One of the most pleasant events
which transpired in Norway town
ship in many yeas was the wedding of
Mr. O. H. Hastel to Miss Lena Larson,
both of this township, last Saturday,
Nov. 23, 1890. The happy event took
place at Bethlehem church, the center of
the Lutheren congregation of this town
ship and the ceremonies were conducted
by the pastor, Rev. O. A. Berge. Mr.
Hustel is one of Norway township's in
dustrious and most prosperous young
men who has gained a wide circle of
friends all over this portion of Lin
pqpunty and Miss Larson is the
and Mrs. Nelson Larson,
known and most influen
tial iairmers in this section. She is a
young lady of culture and intelligence
and there is no young lady in this part of
the county who has the pleasure of a
wider circle of friends and stands higher
in the estimation of her acquaintances than
-.Miss Larson (Now Mrs. Hustel) The wed
j'vding was attended by many friends' and
^s^acquanintances of "the happy couple.
They go forth with a brightly shining
•'. .: star of hope to guide them through a
long and happy, prosperous wedded life.
They will make their home in this local
ity. The following is a complete list of
A. Odegard. canteen, wine glasses,
cups and saucers and bed spread: Paul
Gubrud, lamp and set glass dishes P. C.
Chraft and T. H. Helgerson, hanging
lamp Ole Kundtson. set knives and
forks Carrie Anderson, pickle castor
K. Amundson, butterdish Mrs. L. Wilca,
brwadspread O. S. Strand, album Mr.
ai)(\ytvs. K. Sydness, rocking chair Jas.
A.^Hmey, looking glass K. M. Nupen,
JJ^P^Mistor Mrs. Arneberg, tabic cloth
Ida LWder, pair vases Mrs. Chraft, ta
ble scarf Annie Anderson, bedspread
Mr. and Mrs. Rosum, set silver tea
spoons: Mr. and Mrs. A. Arneson, look
glass Mr. and Mrs. Amundson, cloths
wringer and Hat iron Mrs. T. Strand,
fruit dish and cake stand Rena and Mag
gie Sorlie, bedspread Mrs. H. K. Rise,
table cloth Mrs. G. and W. Bergstrom,
set chairs: August and John Johnson,
center table Sorenson & Moe, silver
butter dish and silver cups Ole Jacobson,
set glass dishes Mrs. Rognstad, bed
spread O. Jacobson, pie plates Henry
and Bell Hattum, table cloth and nap
kins K. T. Falde, set knives and forks
Ed. Fossum, set silver knives and forks
L. M. Skuness, Gunda Jacobson, Mattie
Rossum, bible. Cash donations Mrs.
Gilbertson, $1 Ole Overseth. $4 Maria
Hovelsond, $1.50 Mickel Gilbertsou. $2
John Johnson, $2 Peter Tuntland, $1
Gusta vBredland, $1 Miss Biddy Strand,
$1.50 Mr. and Mrs. A. Arneson. $5 O.
and O. Stecnsland, $5 Mrs. H. Norum,
$1 Mrs. Marius Nelson, $1 Miss E.
Jacobson, -$1.75 O. Erickson, $1. Mr.
ar^Mrs. Tundingsland, $2. Father of
Wide, cooking stove.
An Interesting Letter From the Farmers' Leader
/R WOHTIIING, Nov. 24.—Special corre
S'Jr'fpondence: The people of this locality
who are readers of THE LEADER have thus
far looked in vain for the issue of the pa
per dated Nov. 8. We have been waiting
patiently for it to come but it seems now
that we are going to be disappointed.
We would like to have the paper even if
it is late in order to enable us to read the
first part of the Beaumont speech. .We
have no idea what could have become of
the paper unless it was not issued. Can
the oeditor enlighten us any? Mrs.
Gemmill and family of Canton were the
guests of Mrs. W. J. He
my and Mrs. H.
J. Frank's a few davs lastweek Al
though corn husking is nearing to a close
and the weather has been very fine, busi
ness seems to be at a perfect standstill.
It is believed that this is due to the result
of the election, that everything was arti
ficially forced upon tho top shelf just be
fore election to catch the votes of the
farmers and laboring men who were de
luded into the idea that the passage of
the silver bill was at work making times
better, and as soon as the election was
over the bottom dropped out of every
thing again. If there is nothing else that
will wake up the people this ought to be
enough to do so TIIE LEADER repre
tative learns that Jerry Woodly, of Lin
coln township has been successful in
striking a fine flow of water. The well
produces enough water, it is said, to irri
gate Mr.Woodleys's large farm W. E.
Hanner and wife spent several days at
Sioux Falls this week. It is believed Mr.
Hanner has his eye on some business en
terprise... .Your correspondent learns
that the organization of the Patrons of
Industry will meet this or next week to
elect officers and attend to other matters.
The organization has quite a member
ship here O. M. Iverson anticipates a
trip to Washington in the near future.
Whether he is goinjr out after the Worth
ing postoffice or a clerkship in the trea
sury department he does not say.
Program of the Coming Session of the Oonnty
WomenB Christian Temperance Union.
Following is the official program ar
ranged for the exercises of the regular
meeting of the county organization of the
Women's Christian Temperance Union to
be held in Canton, Saturday Nov. 29, at
half past one o'clock p. m. in the Presby
Music by the Y's.
Reading of the scripture and prayer.
Reading of minutes Secretary
Unfinished and new business.
Reports of vice president, Canton Y's
Report of state convention
Mrs. F. E. Conklin, Co. Pres.
Paper—How shall we entertain our young
People? Mrs. C. B. Kennedy.
Discussion—Opened by Mrs. Fitzgerald
Supt. of Parlor Meetings.
Paper—How do Dakota State, laws relat
ing to Women effect their interests
Mrs. F. A. Keep.
Discussion—Opened by Mrs. O. P. Ash
ley, superintendent of legislative work.
Plan and work of Loyal Legion
Pres. of Lennox Loyal Legion.
Demorest Medal contest, Saturday even
ing, at 7:o0 o'clock in the Presbyterian
All are cordially invited to attend both
Dr. Lewis, of Canton, delivered a very
interesting and instructive lecture on the
subject of Anatomy, at the college last
The new constitutions of the Adelpliic
Literary society were received last week
and made their first appearance in the
meetings of the society Friday evening.
The work was done at the FARMERS'
LEADER oilice and was neatly and tastily
executed. The A. L. Society extends its
thanks to THE LEADER for this excellent
piece of work, well done and at a reason
able price. It is to be hoped that the
people of Lincoln county and elsewhere
will appreciate such a paper as this and
reward it accordingly,
Among the exercises at the A. L.
Society next Tuesday evening, Nov. 28,
will be the reading of the Observer, the
society paper, which is alwaps interest
ing. Visitors are always welcome.
For beeping in a warm climate on
through the summer season more salt
will be required, especially for large
hams. Dry salting is done by rubbing
each ham half a dozen times, at intervals
of a few days, with salt and sugar, and
touching them upon a
platform or table
covered with salt and covering the hams
with salt. The time required will be
much the same as for the pickle, but the
thorough rubbing of both the flesh and
skin sides must not be omitted. Hickory
wood is the best material for smoking
any kind of meat.
Keeping Cidev Sweet.
A writer in Popular Gardening says:
We know of no drug that can be used
with safety which will keep cider per
fectly sweet. Salicyclic acid, one or two
ounces to the barrel, is sometimes used
and recommended, but we would not
care to use "sweet cider" thus doctored
as a beverage. A pound of mustard
seed put into a barrel of cider will keep
it in tolerably fair condition as long as
kept bunged up tight and not disturbed
otherwise. The only practical way of
keeping cider perfectly sweet is by put
ting it in bottles, heating them and their
contents to near the boiling point, and
then sealing up air tight.
About this time look out for the ap
pearance of the new one dollar treasury
cotes. They will contain the head of
the old war secretary Stanton as their
A Faithful LEADER in the Cause of Economy and Reform, the Defender of Truth and Justice, the Fbe of Fiaud and Corruption.
CANTON, SOUTH DAKOTA, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1890.
THE FARM, FIELD AND GARDEN.
Selected and Original Articles On Various
Topics of Interest to Rural
Practical Information, Submitted By Practi
cal' Men For the Use of Stock
men and Farmers.
FORESIGHT IN FARMING.
By foresight we do not mean the ability
to foretell the future—that is prophecy.
Nor do we mean the ability to see a long
distance into the future and, by reasoning
from cause to effect, accurately anticipate
the outcome of events, but we mean the
capacity to see in advance of the crowd
the actual occurrences of the day and
realize what they mean to the particular
line of business in which a man can be
engaged. This foresight, coupled with
courage and executive ability, will make
any man rich the lack of it will keep
him under the harrow, if in debt, and
keep him from'making a marked success
under any circumstances. It is not
necessary to see a long way ahead. In
many lines of business it is enought to
see a day or an hour in advance. It is
not necessary to foresee what will hap
pen, but the effect of what has just hap
pened. For example, an Iowa farmer
had old corn on hand and wanted to sell
it when the three days of not winds came
last July. If he had sagacity enough to
foresee that three days of hot winds that
wilted the corn leaves .in Iowa would
scorch both leaves and stalk in Kansas,
he would have gone to the bank and
borrowed the money to meet present
wants rather than sell his corn. The
speculator with no greater meansjof in
formation, but more foresight, bought
the corn and made more in a single day
than the farmer who grew it made in his
year of hard work. It was not necessary
to foresee the hot winds, but to see what
is plain to all of us now—that they meant
damage over a wide section of country,
diminished corn ct'ops and advanced
When corn is selling at fifteen cents
per bushel it should require no foresight
to see that it is good property anywhere
on the line of railroad in the west, better
property for a year's investment than
government bonds. When any- product
sell below the cost of production in a
section of country specially adapted to it,
it argues a lack of sagacity when any
man loses faith in an advance in price.
As we read the market reports from
day to day we cannot resist the conviction
either that there is a very great scarcity
of feed in the west, or that farmers have
lost faith in cattle to an extent that has
no present justification in the present con
ditions. Necessity knows no law, and
when a farmer has not sulfcient food and
cannot buy, the only thing left is to put
his stuff on the market. The fact that
cattle are going on the market in such
unprecedented num,bers, and of such
miserable quality, should teacli farmers
who can hold on that the present condi
tion of the market, no matter how they
may be caused, will inevitably advance it
in the future. With a range of $4.So per
hundred pounds between the best and
the worst, farmers ought to have faith in
the best and produce oifly such for the
Neither ought it to require much fore
sight to see that in the present condition
of the fine stock market in advance in the
price of improved cattle is inevitable.
The history of improved live stock shows
clearly that farmers grade up their herds
when stock goes up and neglect grading
up when it falls in price. This gives the
marked for imt)roved stock wider fluctua
tions than that for common cattle. As
soon as cattle advances farmers will want
to buy bulls, and scores of men will want
to start in as breeders. There will be but
few bulls in reach, for breeders propose
now to steer all but the very choicest
rather than sell at present prices. The
man who buys a small choice herd of
females at present prices, and breeds
judiciously, will soon get credit for an
amount of foresight which should be the
common heritage of every man.
The conditions of the hog market are
very similar. While there was at the
1st of August more hogs in the United
States than at any period in its history,
and had the corn crop been even an aver
age one. there would have been very low
prices, the wholesale way in which they
have been dumped on the market at an
age and condition of immaturity on ac
count of scarcity of feed and cholera, can
have but one result in reducing the stock
below the demands of the market. When
there is a difference of $1.50 per hundred
pounds between the best and the worst ni
the market it means that there is a gener
al dumping of the pi-ns hit the slaughter
houses, and that the big growing b:.r ine.
is in a state of collapse. Now is the
time, above all others in recent years, for
a man to use his foresight, not as to what
will happen, but is discovering the cer
tain result of what has happened and is
BY J, M. POTTER.}
This is an important period in the life
of the pig, becifuse it dates the turning
point with all litters not properly hand
led, and forms tiie basis of loss in the
hog-raising anil frog-feeding business.
There is but one way'to properly han
dle sows and her litter of pigs. The sow
must have a roomy, dry shed or sleeping
apartment and yard or enclosure suf
ficiently large t| admit of exercise. The
food for this mother hog should be large
ly of slops, wli|ch may be prepared by
any intelligentfiog owner out of the con
venient materials at hand. The common
gatherings from the kitchen with milk,
water and grouaid grain added makes one
of the very besfpreparations that can be
had. A few es&s of corn should be fed
each day. As'ioon as the pigs are one
week old the sq|v should be fed all she
will eat. A snip,
11 pen should be made in
some convenient coiner of the shed or
yard and provited with a suitable trough
for feeding thefittle pigs. A mixture of
shorts and brai- is a good diet to start
them on. ThJ| will very soon drink a
slop of milk ai®-shorts. This mixture
for the little pife should be changed fre
quently in ord® to secure the greatest
growth. Cornlmeal, ground oats, wheat
bran shorts,' s»ked corn, any kind of
good, sound grfin, may be prepared eith
er to be fed dxjfor in slops.
The great jjr»tter of importance is to
keep the pigk3j|t of a corn diet and pro
vide them witlr athey call neat up „$Jean
three times a dfjty. It is very necessary
that they havefthe run of a grass pasture.
They need all tiie Exercise they will take
by having the liberty of the range.
This system of growing pigs woans them
gradually and they pass the mother's
milk to the feed by degrees, and by the
time the ordinary weaning age arrives
they are weaned and the sows dried up.
Eight weeks is not too long for the pigs
to run with the,sow, even when handled
as our plan diriic^s.
ENCOURAGEMENT FOR CATTLEMEN
[EY SMIS FREEMONT.] ,.
Is the out look in the cattle business
encouraging? This is a question I have
been asked many times by my farmer
friends since the present .unsatisfactory
condition of .tltt cattle.jqjifcrket has begun.,
wholesale slaughter of the breeding stock
of the country has measuiably stopped.
Farmers and ranchmen have stopped to
count the cows and heifers and estimate
the beef supply for the next four years.
It is a foregone conclusion that at the
rate cows have been slaughtered for the
last two years, all over the country, the
producing capacity of steer beef is being
reduced,'.and on the other hand, but in
the same line of argument, the increase
in the consumption of beef grows steadily
greater and greater. Where is our beef
supply to come from when we cease to be
producers, an extraordinary effort cattle
increase to deplete the ranks of the
mother stock? It simply must result in
a scarcity of beef and consequent higher
prices for what is consumed
There can no serious disadvantage be
experienced in the shortage of a hog crop,
as their ability to multiply will set things
right in a lew years of close breeding but
with cuttle it is different. If we are
short of breeding stock, and receive any
benefit from them in adding to our num
bers, so it is evident that there are some
things impossible, viz to create a two
year-old heifer in a minut.
The speculative idea of handling noth
ing but steers has taken root everywhere.
Farmers who have been libera! producers
are now liberal buyers of steer calves.
They argne that they cannot afford to
keep a cow a year, graze her through the
summer and feed her prepared feed dur
ing the fall and winter, pay taxes on her
and have a money investment of twenty
or thirty dollars, all because she pro
duces once a year a ten dollar calf, and
run all risks of losing both cow and calf,
when a good ealf can be bought for $10.
It is further advanced that the profit in
the cattle raising business commences
after this period in the life of the calf:
therefore the importance of lotting the
front end of the business alone, and tak
ing the calf at a year old, when it is pre
pared to rapidly develope for tiie con
I think there is ample room to regard
the outlook the cattle business very en
couraging now. and 1 would r.ot hesitate
to advise those who are prepared and in
clined to embark in the raising of cattle,
to make the investment at once. As has
been the history of all live stock depres
sions, there is an end, and following this
will come a period of unusual activity,
which result we certainly have the best
reasons to anticipate in the near future.
Don't go round belittling your busi
ness. You will soon get to believe your
own complaints and then you will soon
lose respect for yourself for staying in
such a business.
BEAUMONT'S POWERFUL SPEECH,
Continuation of the Address Delivered By
Ralph Beaumont at Canton, Octo
ber 18, 1890.
A Detailed Explanation of Some of the Prin
ciples of the Knights of Labor
•Let me read article VII.
"The recognition by ihcorporation of
trades'unions, orders, and such other as
sociations as may be organized by the
working masses to improve their condi
tion and protect their rights."
I will tell you what we mean by that
section. I mean that men do not get rich
by working for it. Now some will say
that that is an overdrawn statement. But
I have travelled in twenty-eight different
states, both Canadas and four territories
in the lecture field on economic questions
for twenty years, and during that time I
have looked into the faces of 5,000,000
people, and a man who got rich by work
ing for it woulcl be a curiosity to me. He
my live and have his being but I have
never laid eyes on him and when I do will
cage him, because I can get a good price
for him as a "Freak" in a museum. Mr.
Chairman, men in our day don't get rich
that way. Men in our day get rich by
special acts of legislation granting pri
vileges to rob and plunder their fellow
men by law, and every rich man you
have got in America today is rich through
that process. You ask me to prove that.
That is what I am here for.
Now, as to the objects of this section,
it must be plain to any person in this
room who is a close observer of affairs
that are constantly transpiring, that some
few are becoming very wealthy, Avhile a
large number are growing corresponding
ly poor. We find that the system of do
ing business in this country has been rap
idly changing, and that some are grow
ing rich by having special privileges con
ferred upon them by law, through acts of
incorporation. As a matter of illustra
tion Jay Gould is worth $75,000,000. I
am not. Jay Gould may own five acres
o/ land in the city. I may own five acres
adjoining him with only a board fence
between us. Jay with his millions, may
build oil his lot a round house, a depot, a
comes to my fence, wHen I say, "Jay,
you stop. Don't come any further, if
you do I will shoot you," and Jay stops.
Why? Because he knows that my title
to my land is as good as his. "But,"
says he. "I will get the best of you." I
say "all right, go ahead." Every dog
has his day, and he commences to have'
his. How Why, he at once associates
twelve other men with him, and takes ad
vantage of an act, entitled an act for the
formation of companies for engaging in
mechanical, mining and other purposes
and under the act they form a railroad
company. And then select three disinter
ested persons they appraise my land, and
they pay me that sum and take my
land and I have no say in the matter.
It my be a heirloom in my family for
which I have no price. How does he ob
tain this power to take my property from
me Why he does it under the power of
eminent domain, which, strictly interpret
ed, means that the rights of the individ
ual must be sacrificed for the common
weal of the whole community. Or to be
plain, Jay Gould, in order to take pos
session of my land, takes the state into
partnership with him, but when lie has
got my land, and watered the stock of
the company four hundred per cent, and
extorts high rates of freight on this water
he kicks the state out of partnership. So
you see, my friends, that Jay Gould un
incorporated. Now let us carry this
illustration still further. These men now
having incorporated themselves, under
the law. they name their company tiie
Missouri Pacific railroad, and say to
themselves. "We have not time to work
or manage this railroad, let us hire an
agent. Well, who will we hire? Why
in Des Moines, Iowa, is a man by the
name of Hoxie we will hire him." And
they send for Dr. Hoxie, and say to him,
"We would like to hire you to work for
us." "Well," says he, "what do you
want me to do?" "We want you to do
two things. First, we want you to buy the
labor in the cheapest market you can
find. Second, we want you to form as
many combinations with other lines of
transportation as you can so as to extort
as high rates of freight as you can out of
the public, and we will give you 810,000
per year for your services."' And he ac
cepts the situation under these terms.
And proceeds to carry out the first part
of the agreement, viz., to hire the labor
in the cheapest market.
How does he go to work to do that?
Going to perform his first day's labor, lit
scratches his head and says, "what hav
I agreed to do?" I have agreed to get tin
labor in the cheapest market. IIow am
I to do that? I have so many men to
work for me. They are working twenty-
$1.00 PER ANNUM.
six days in the month, when there are
twenty-six in it and when freight moves
briskly, by working over time, they get
in thirty-four days. They have got an
extra loaf of bread in the house. If I ask
them to work for less they will not do it
as long as the bread lasts. I have got to
get rid of that bread." How does he go
to work to get rid of that bread?"1 He
commences to hire men and he keeps hir
ing until he has two men to one job.
"Now," he says, I have got them where
I want them." And he goes to one of
those poor fellows and says, "I want
twenty per cent of that half loaf"—and
the poor fellow is obliged to accept it, be
cause the other poor fellow is hungry
enough to do it for twenty per cent off if
he doesn't. Now he has got them down
twenty per cent. What do the. working
men begin to do when they get in this
position I do not want to flatter you
working people. I know you better than
you know yourselves, I have made it
my business to study you for twenty-five
years. Let me tell you—a majority of
you—your brains are in your stomach,
and never work, until you get hungery.
When you get hungry you begin to think
and then one of you say, "How did we
get into this serape?" Another, who has
been more hungry, says, "I see through
it these fellows liere'pooled their issues
they h&ve associated their labor they
have associated their capital not only
that—they have taken the state into part
nership with them." Then they say that
we have not time to run this machine
we have to work ten hours per day—
when Ave get it to do. "Why," says one
of them, "Hire an agent to do it for
you." Who will we get? Well down in
Scranton, there'is a fellow by the name of
Terence V. Powderly. We will send for
him, and say'to him, "Mr. Powderly, we
would like to hire you to be our agent."
"Well," he says, "what do you want me
to do?" "We want you to sell our labor
in the dearest market you can find, and
we will give you for your services $1,500
per year. Not ten thousand and I have
known Mr. Prwderly to serve his organ
ization for $400 per year. "Very well,"
says he, and he accepts the situation on
these terms. The next morning he goes
down to the office of the Missouri Pacific
railway. Seeing a man sitting there, he
inquires if this is Mr Hoxie, the agent of
the Missouri Pacific railway. Receiving
an affirmative -Veply 'lie' says that'-his
name is.Wwderly, and tliat he is the ap
pointed agent of the Knights of Labor
who are in the employ of his road, and
he is there to make a bargain with him
in regard to labor. The moment he an
nounces that fact there is a frown on the
brow of Mr. Hoxie, and he replies. "I
don't know you sir. I don't know you
sir. I don't known any agent for my
help. If my employes want to deal with
me they must come to me indevidually,
and not through an agent." Now, fellow
citizens, hear is the situation: Incor
porated capital claims the right te trans
act its business through an agent, and
denies that right to associated labor. It
was the demand for the establishment
of that principle on the part of labor that
caused the great strike on the South
western system, and not the discharge of
a man named Hall, as was claimed by
the capitalistic piess. Hence, we say in
this section that we desire the incorpor
ation of trade unions under the law, that
shall place them on an equal footing with
But, say they, you fellows are awful
mean. You won't let any person work
in the shop that does not belong to your
union. Now, I do not know how it is
with the workingmen in this city, but in
my trade if we can prevent it, we will
not let any man work in a slior) that does
not belong to our union. But, say you,
that is arbitrary. Not a bit of it. You
ask me why? Well, let me tell you.
The United States census, the bureau of
labor statistics of fifteen different states,
records this fact, that wherever labor
organizations exist the wages arc from
15 to 20 per cent higher than where no
labor organization exist. Why is this so?
Well, it is because the members of these
labor organizations pay taxes in the form
of dues and assessments to keep their
wages up. That being the case, what
right lias another man to come along and
take the benefit of this high price and
not pay his share of taxation? You
would not allow a man to build a house
here without paying his share of the taxes
to support the city government. No:
you would send the collector to collect
the tax. and if lie did not pay it you
would sell the house and take the taxes
out of the proceeds.
Wo read that tho Hon. Ben Butter
worth has been telling tho farmers of
Kane county, His., that mortgages are
an evidence of prosperity. There is no
proof that his rural hearers at onco put up
the prices of their lands. The fact that
the sheriff is about to put much of the
said lands up at auction would have de
terred arise in price even had the buoy
ant Ben succeeded in proving his com
forting proposition to their satisfaction.
I —Field and Farm.
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