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I I &• :i '?.- I •cr s- -f'-Ln&W" ,-« .7 ...v v., j-.w.,-! .. ft.r v.'.,- ©ft* gtovmev#' geafcur. —PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY- FARMERS' PUBLISHING COMPANY, —INCORPORATE!*— A. J. WIMPLE, PRESIDENT JERE GEHON, VICE PltESIDBlflT E. W. OWENS, SECRETARY JOHN ISACKSON, TREASURER. J. P. COOLEY, EDITOR AND MANAGER. Entered at the postofflce in Canton as secohd Class mail matter. THE FARMERS' LEADER IS owned by a com pany composed of nearly 400 of the most progressive farmers of southeastern South Da kota. It is a fearless advocate of the rights of the farmer, mechanic, day laborer and artisan and as such it will use its best influence toward the upbuilding of the Farmers' Alliance, the JCnlgnts of Labor and kindred organizations, Bnd, incidentally, toward the support of the principles of the independent party. The paper is conducted under the direction «f aboard of directors composes of the follow ing named gentlemen: A. J. Wimple, Jere 'Gehon, E. w. Owens, John Isackson, Henry Bradshaw, Ole Byre. Nels Larson, Ole Hoken •tad, A. T. Sundvold. TERMS OP StmscRipnoNi—Three months, 25 cents six months, 50 cents one year, Si. Pay ments for subscriptions to the paper may be remitted direotly to the publication office or to any officer or member of the board of directors. CORRESPONDENCE is desired from every town, Village, township and post office In Lincoln bounty. Correspondents should write their man uscripts as plainly as possible and write on one tide of the paper, and should at all times con fine themselves to the news. It is also impor tant that a correspondents' name should be at tached to a communication in order to secure admittance to the columns of the paper. No attention will be paid to anonymous communi cations of any kind. Intelligent contributions on economy, finance, tarrfil, transportation, land, and other important questions of the day, ore invited from all parts of the country. Con tributors are requested, however, to make their communications as brief as possible. Communications of any kind, must be in on or before Tuesday evening in order to secure publication the same week. Address THE FARMERS' LEADER, Canton, Bouth Dakota. A BLUE MARK. Opposite this paragraph indicates that your Bubscription has expired and if no instructions Me received to the contrary, it is understood that you want the paper to be sent you as heretofore a red mark indicates that the paper will be discontinued unless orders are given to have it continued. A blue mark opposite this poragraph indi cates that the paper is sent you as a sample copy and that you are hereby invited to become & regular subscriber. A blue mark opposite this paragraph means that your subscrption has been paid by a friend a red mark, that the paper is sent oa trial for a short time. THE DEADLY COIL. The following extract was taken from an article in the Progressive Farmer. It demonstrates how the deadly coil of the capitalistic anaconda is slowly but surely fastening its destructive grip around the necks of the producing classes of Amer ica: There "is nothing new under the sun" is an old and true saying. We learn from an exchange that nearly a dozen of the loading manufacturing firms of De troit in co-operation with other concerns in tin larger cities of Michigan have taken steps to form a gigantic alliance of capital, having for its object the entire subjugation of organized labor. This combination will be of an entirely secret character, and will regulate the wages of the respective employes, with reference to their right or demands. The trust was formed in New York less than four weeks ago, and since that time has spread with lightning rapidity through Buffalo, Ro chester, Syracuse and Albany, Massillon, O., Zanesville, Columbus and Springfield which cities are stirring themselves in the same direction. A number of the largest manufacturing companies and corpora tions of Pittsburg have followed suit, in cluding Carnegie's rolling mills and steel works, the Westinghouse company and all the large firms doing business below Pittsburg on the Alleghany river. The Colt Anns company, the Yale Lock com pany. and the liraome Elevator works in Connecticut have all a share in this im mense combination, and it is the inten tion of the promoters to extend the sys tem from end to end of the United States. The avowed object is to crush the labor or ganization, and to decminate the various trades unions of the country by refusing in a body to employ union labor. It is claimed that by thoroughly concerted ac tion and the refusal to acknowledge col lective effort on the part of the employes that the power of labor as a body can easily be broken by taking one city or district at a time, and utterly paralyzing the workers by a contribution of capital sufficient to starve the laboring class into a submission to the terms of the capitalis tic league. They will then refuse to ac knowledge any protest or petition which is not personal or individual. The scale of wages will be fixed by the league, as will all other important matters as to hours, etc. Should the employes of one firm demand as a body any change or amelioration of their condition such ac tion is to be viewed in the light of a strike. Work is to be suspended, and the firm thus involved, together with all other firms engaged in a similar business shall close down until the dissatisfied workers shall have submitted to the terms dictated by the league. HOW THE ALLIANCE PROGRES SES. The Ohio State Journal, published at Columbus, in a recent issue contained an interesting interview with Col L. L. Polk, president of the National Farmers Alli ance and Industrial Union, which illus trates how wonderfully the progress of the orgazination is moving forward in all parts of the country. The following is the principal portion of the interview: Hon. L. L. Polk, President of the Na tional Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, arrived in this city yesterday after noon for the purpose of addressing the county Alliance this afternoon, Seated in front of a sociable grate fire in a modest room at the United States hotel, sur rounded by a score of well known citizens of the county, he was found.bv a reporter last night. ITe Was engaged in an earnest talk to his auditors who were listening with impressive attention. "When through he slated that de was on his way home from an extended visit to the Alliance in the states of Kansas, Nebraska, Misouri, Iowa and Illinois. He had heard such encouraging reports from Ohio that he concluded to spend a few days in the Buckeye state. The growth of the Alli ance is remarkable, and particularly so in the states I have just visited. The enthusiasm displayed by the farmers in joining the organization is demonstrated by the fact that in December, 1889, when the Alliance was organized in the state of Kansas, the scattering Alliances contain ed only 35,000 members and to day it has over 146,000. In the northwest we have a rapidly growing organization, and in Michigan we have a model Alliance. "We have now Alliances organized in thirty states, from the Atlantec to the Pacific and Canada to the gulf. We have over 34,000 Alliances, containing nearly a membership of 2,000,000. In a year We will have over 2,500,000." "What do you think of the progress of the Alliance in Ohio?" "It is remarkable, but it is the same in every state. I find that the Alliances in Ohio are larger than in any state I have yet visited. The result here is en couraging and you need not be surprised to see 1,200 Alliances the state next October, with a membership of 150,000." "Is it not one of the objects of the Alliance to seek a confederation of all other farmers' organizations in the coun try?" "It is. There is now another organiza tion known under the name of the Alli ance. which is a strong and powerful factor among the farmers of the western states, particularly in Nebraska. The objects of this and our organization arc practically the same. We have a mutual understanding, and it will not be long until the two are confederated. We want to get all the organizations of the farmers together and are not attempting to do so by absorption, but by uniting with them." "The Alliance appears to be causing the two prominent political parties some fright in particular sections of the coun try?" "Yes but the local Alliances are res ponsible for this. The chief principles of the Alliance are non-partisanship and non-sectionalism, when a man enters the lodge-room he leaves his party and religion behind him. The Alliance is united by ties of financial and home in terests. We want to labor for the educa tion of the agricultural classes in the science of economic government in a non partisan spirit to develop a better state, mentally, socially and financially, and to suppress personal, local, sectional and national prejudices." MINNESOTA MOR TGA GES. Some six months ago the Great West, of St. Paul, alleged that 700 mortgages had been foreclosed in one county in that State in the past twelve months. Many of the papers made light of the statement. Since that the Great West went to the trouble of getting the exact figures and published them in the last issue of that paper. They find that the county has bonds outstanding. for rail road facilities to the amount of $300,000. The total number of real estate mortgages that have been recorded since the county was organized is 13,810. Of this number 7,272 have been satisfied or foreclosed, leaving 0,547 still in force. The total mortgage in debtudness since the county was organized has been $7,132,003.08. Of this amount, $3,494,081.80 have been paid up or foreclosed. This leaves the vast sum of $3,037,081.22 unpaid. The county has a population of about 30,000 people. It has 02 townships, so each township has an average of 100 mort gages amounting to $58,002. The great west finds that the average price of wheat in the country for the past twelve months lias been about 50 cents per bushel. Now how long will it take these people to pay these debts with 50 cent wheat? That is not all. Nearly all the personal property in the county is under chattel mortgages. On the real estate mortages above they have to pay $300,000 annually in interest. Add to this the $140,000 annual interest on the railroad" bonds and other indebitedness and the total sum for interest is $500,000 each year. The above are facts. There is no guess work about it. Can there be any further doubt about the sincerity of the north western farmers in the great Alliance movement? The history of this one county is just a sample of tli awful con dition of things in that fertile region. Yet every body except the farmers and labor ers are prospering as they never did be fore. How long will this republic last at this rate. 0 VERNMENT RAILROADS. The Farmer's Yaice, of Chicago con tains some valuable information on the question of government ownership of rail roads, some of which TIIE LEADER is pleased to submit in the following extract from that excellent paper: The government railroads of Russia are paying great and fast growing profits into the treasury of that Empire. In 1880 the net surplus was $17,000,000. In 1888 it is said to have been $77,500,000. Taking this as a basis, our railroads, if they were operated by the government, pay all taxes, National, State and munici pal. India lias more than 10,000 miles of railroad and magnificent depots, iron telegraph poles, and the lowest fares in the world. Now the poor, degraded paupers of India can earn but seven cents a day and board themselves. But the fare for this class of passengers is only one seven teenth of a cent per mile, or for one day's labor the common laborer of India can ride on the government roads of that country 119 miles. The common laborer of the United States will not earn more than $1,50 per day, on an average, and board himself, but a three cents per mile he can only ride fifty miles for the price of one day's labor—an advantage in favor of the poor pauper of India of sixty nine miles for one day's labor, or 25,186 miles further than a pauper can ride in a year than the great and free independent American citizen. One of the best papers in the west, in an issue dated April 12, 1889, states of John I. Blair, who was one of the build ers of the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad: "The business was so shrewdly man aged that for every dollar, expended the incorporators received back five dollars in securities." This is a fair sample of corporation railroading. What does it mean? It means that if the Sioux City & Pacific have paid five per cent interest its mort gage indebtedness it was equivalent to 25 per cent on the cost of construction. And as it charges no higher rate than any other roads, it means that if we are charg ed 15 cents per bushel freight from the Missouri river to Chicago on grain, a road built and run on the cost of con struction could make the same profit at one fifth that price, or three cents per bushel. It means the same with all other pro ducts—wheat, cattle^ hogs, etc. It means the same thing of goods as we all must buy and pay corporations high freight on them from eastern factories. It means more. It means while our farms are now only worth $20 per acre, that is only one fifth the actual value of our land. You all know that the value of your farm depends on the nearness of your farm to the market, or in other words the cost of freight on a farmer's products regulates the value of his land and the amount ofproflts he is to make. It means that the Missouri valley farms would be worth more when the govern ment shall own the railroads than Mis sissippi valley farms are worth now, be cause it costs us five times too much freight. The Worthing correspondent of THE LEADER imparts the information that the issue of this paper of Nov. 8, did not reach that place, at least not the sub scribers—and wants to know if the paper was issued that week. There is no eason why the paper should not have reached the subscribers at Worthing that week as well as every other week, The paper was issued as usual and left this office on the day of publication. It it did dot reach the subscribers at Wor thing, some one in the mail service is to blame. It is not the first time that THE LEADER has had complaint from the Worthing office and it is not more than prebable if the sleepy headed outfit which inhabits the Worthing postoffice would get the sand out cf their eyes the LEADER subscribers would would have little if any trouble in getting their papers. There afce several other offices in the county that will have the pleasure'of entertain ing unwelcome guests unless they reform in their conduct toward this paper. One of the most hopeful signs of the present time is the fact that farmers are everywhere organizing for their improve ment and protection. This movement is neither local nor spasmodic. It does not aim at the mere relief of present pressure, or the removal of some burden that bears hard for the time, but the improvement of the farmer in his profession, the bet terment of his social life and the effective use of the ballot. It means simply that the farmer will hereafter be a dominating and controlling force in American politi cal affairs and that his interests must be the study of the statesman. When the owners of the soil of America once deter mine to be heard in behalf of their own interests, the soil itself takes on an added value. Statesmen will make haste to remedy any grievance which so numerous and powerful a class may have whenever that class begin to study in real earnest the bearings of public measures on the farm interest.—Dell Rapids Times. Now that there is likely to be war among the great packers, the Chicago stock yards monopoly and the transport ation companies, perhaps there may be some solution of the venerable mystery as to how it is that notwithstanding the immense reductions in the price of fat hogs and cattle there has been no material reduction in the price of meats to the consumer. It might be worth a good many millions of dollars to have that mystery cleared up. It would be a good deal of satisfaction even if it didn't effect a copper of saving,—Sioux City Journal. Thanksgiving day was quiet and pleas ant and the day was appropriately ob served by the people of Canton and the country surrounding. Union services were held in the Church of God in the morning and the festive turkey gobbler gobbled as pityfuily as usual in every palace and hovel, while THE LEADER family pastured on one of Wm. Haw's big roosters. Business was pratically suspended and the air of a legal holiday prevailed throughout town and county, indicating that the people of Lincoln county gave thanks with old-time pro priety. THE PUBLIC QUESTION BUREAU, Under this heading THE FARMERS' LEADER will publish answers to all reasonable questions that may be asked by its subscribers or regular correspondents. All communications for this department must be made in writing on or before Monday of the week in whih they are in tended to be published. Available space for the use of the department is limited to half a column per week and all matter received in ex cess of this amount will be carried over and given precedence, the following week. No attention will be paid to questions coming from others than regular subscribers or correspon dents nor from parties who do not give their names. Neither will it knowingly decide bets or impart information concerning lotteries, gift or other gambling concerns: Give me, through your question department, a short sketch of Rip Van Winkle. D. C. B. Answer: Kip Van Winkle is the character of one of Washington Irving's works. The story was dramatized by Bion Boucicault and the part of Ein Van Winkle played by Joe Jefferson at a prominent theater in London in 1865. Please give the meaning of the term "Nihi list." O, P. Answer: A Nihilist is one who advocates the principle of nihilism, which holds that nothing can be positively and deflnately known that it is skepticism carried to the denial of all knowledge and all reality. The term is applied to the Russian Communistic agitators because they advocate the idea of abigating all gov ernment. Please answer me the following question through THE LEADER and oblige: 1. Can soverign states be sued. 3. In case of the election of a president of the United States, if there fails to be a majority for any con dition in the electoral college, what action is taken? 3, How many members will there be in the next house of representatives of the United States in case the present congress changes the apportionment? Subscriber. Answer: 1, No, a state can not be sued direct ly. 3, The constitution provides that the elec toral college must chose a president by a majority vote but if it fails to do so the elec tion falls upon the house of represent atives. 3, The membership of the house will be the same as it is now until changed by an election held under the new apportionment. Two of your infant readers would like to know of some familiar quotations that are comprehensive and forcible in expression. Can the editor of THE LEADER help us out. M. & E. Answer: Yes, we can help you out a little but as "Time is money" and "Brevity is the soul of wit," we hope to be excused from monopolizing space: "An Apt quotation is as good as an original remark." "Delays have dangerous ends." "Make hay while the sun shines." "Smooth is the water where the brook runs deep." The upright man sleeps well." "The ripest fruit falls first." "Never put too fine a point toyourwit it may get blunted. "Better late than never." "At Christmas play and make good cheer, For Christmas comes but once a year," "A rolling stone gathers no moss." "Man proposes and God disposes." "Of two evils ohoose the least." "The tree of liberty grows when watered by the blood of tyrants." "All men are created free and equal." Man wants but little here below, nor wants that little long." Ask me no questions and I'll tell you no lies." "A mole hill of action is worth a mountain of consideration." "As the twig is bent, so's the tree inclin ed." THE KNIGHTS OP LAB0B. Following are the principles of the orgnazition of the Knights of Labor of America: To the public: The alarming development and the aggressiveness of the power of great capitalists and corporations under the present industrial system will inevitably lead to the pauperization and hopeless degradation of the toiling masses. It is imperative, if we desire to enjoy the full blessings of life, that unjust accumulation and this power for evil of aggre gated wealth shall be prevented. This much desired object can be accomplished only by the united efforts of those who obey the divine in junction "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." Therefore we have formed the Order of the Knights of Lalor for the purpose of organizing, educating, and directing the power of the Industral masses. It is not a political party, it is more,—for in it are crystallized sentiments and measures for the benefit of the whole people but it should be born in mind, when exercising the right of suffrage, that the most of the objects herein set forth can only be obtained through legislation, and that it is the duty regardless of party, of all to assist in nominating and supporting with their votes such candidates as will support these measures. No one shall, however, be compelled to vote with the majority. Calling upon all who believe in securing "the greatest good to the greatest number" to join and assist us, we declare to the world that our aims are:— I. To make industrial and moral worth, not wealth, the true standard of individual and National greatness. II. To secure to the workers the full enjoy ment of the wealth they create: sufflicient leisure in which to develop their intellectual, moral and social faculties all of the benefits* recreations, and pleasures of association in a word, to enable them to share in gains and honors of advancing civilization, In order to secure these results, we demand at the hands of the law-making power of State and Nation III. The establishment of Bureaus of Labor Statistics, that we may arrive at a correct knowledge of the educational, moral, and financial condition of the laboring masses. IV. That the pubic lands, the heritage of the people, be reserved for actual settlers,— not another acre for railroad or other specula tors. or alien landlords and that alt lands now held for speculative purposes be taxed to their full value V. The abrogation of all laws that do not bear equally upon capitalists and laborers, and the removal of unjust technicalities, delays, and discriminations in the administration of justice. VI. The adoption of measures providing for the health and safty of those engaged in min ing, manufacturing, and building industries, and forjldnemniflcation to thase engaged therein for injuries received through lack of necessary safeguards. VII. The recognition, by incorporation, of order and other associations organized by the workers to improve their condition and protect their rights. VIII. The enactment of laws to compel corporptions to pay their employes weekly, in lawful money, for the labor of the preceeding week, and giving mechanics and laborers a first lien upon the product of their labor to the extent of their full wages. IX. The abolition of the contract system on National, State, and Municipal works. X. The enactment of laws providing for arbitration between employers and employed, and to enforce the decision of the arbitrators. XI. The prohibition, by law, of the employ ment of children under fifteen years of age. XII. To prohibit the hiring out of convict labor. XIII. That a gratuted income tax be levied. XIV. The establishment of a National monetary system, in which a circulating medi um in necessary quantity shall issue directly to the people, without the interrention of banks that all the National issue shal be fnll legal tender In payment of all debts, public and private and that the Government shall not guarantee or recognize any private banks or create any banking corperation. XV. That interest- bearing bonds, bills of er edit, or notes shall never be issued by the Government but that, when need arises the emergency shall be met by issue of legal tender, non-interest-bearing money. XVI. That the importation of foreign labor under contract be prohibited. XVII. That, in connection with the post offlce. the Government shall organize financial exahanges, safe deposits, and facilities for de posits of savings of the people in small sums. XVIII. That the Government shall obtain posession, by purchase, under the right of eminent domain, of all telegraphs, telephones, and railroads: and that hereafter no charter or license be issued to any corporation for con struction or operation of any means of trans porting intelligence, passengers, or freight. And while making the foregoing demands upon the State and National Government, we will endeavor to associate our own labors:— XIX. To establish co-operative institutions such as will tend to supersede the wage system, by the introduction of a co-operative industrial system. XX. To secure for both sexes equal pay for equal work. XXI. To gain some of the benefits of labor saving machinery by a gradual reduction of the hours of labor to eight per day. XXII. To persuade employers to agree to arbitrate all difference* which may arise be tween them and their employes, in order that the bonds of sympathy between them may be strengthened and that strikes may be rendered unnecessary. Have f7 *f The Boom Still Onf Although my competitors are doing all in their power to destroy my credit by re porting to the public that I am buying Unlimited Quantities of grain and paying AWAY ABOVE VALUE and GIVING flWfly GOODS Less Than Cost. I am still prepared to take All the Grain Offered at the same old rate, And as for Goods, just brought in a car load andean sell Felt boots and Overs for $1.50 per set. Overshoes for White bed blankets for Pretty dress Prints for Coats thread for Are away down. Granulated sugar, 14 lbs. for Pure Java coffee for 25 cents a pound. Pure Maple Syrup from the barrel at 95 cents a gallon. Nothing fine, but good warm goods cheap. Cliristmas Goods. The largest supply ever offered. 100 djl ferent styles of albums alone just look] and see. MD NOW ABOUT JEWELRY. I have decided to close out my Post office Jewelry store and will give you WATCHES, RINGS, SILVERWARE, Etc, Cheaper than you ever thought of buying. Pretty New Clocks, Just drop in and ask for prices. But I must close with, L.25 per pair. 4 l-2c a yai 4 cents a ing in your drain Boy pr goods. D. J. 6ARPENTER a. 75 cents. *N fc'